Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on the Filipino Martial Arts (FMA)

Version: 4.3T
Date: 4 April 2017

Written By : Ray Terry and Bill Cox
The Martial Arts Resource

This FAQ was created to be informative. There were no intentions for it
to be offensive to any style or person.

This FAQ is a compilation of information acquired over the years from
various sources, but it is FAR from complete. Any corrections or additions
that are submitted will be carefully considered. Send them to email address
MartialArtsResource -at- gmail.com and include "FAQ INFO" in the subject heading.

To view the most recent version of this FAQ go to:


The Filipino words used in this FAQ are those used in specific styles. They may
be pronounced or spelled differently elsewhere. Keep in mind the words may not
be used in your style, ie don't bank on the words being 100% correct. They are
presented for your information only.

"Without honor there is no art, only pretenders in a brawl"

Mangisursuro Michael G. Inay

* NOTE: FMA = Filipino Martial Arts


* =====================
1- Overview of the FMA
2 - Technical aspects of the FMA
3 - Structural aspects of the FMA
4 - Instructors & Styles
A - FMA Books
B - FMA Tapes
C - Eskrima information via the Internet
D - Interview with Cass Magda
E - FMA Equipment/Weapon Suppliers
F - Information about the Sudlud Training Organization.
G - Some FMA (Pilipino) vocabulary
H - Locating FMA instructors and/or schools
I - List of those contributing to this FAQ


##### What are the differences between Arnis, Eskrima, and Kali ?

Basically, there is no difference. The general martial arts community uses
the different names to refer to the same art. Originally, the difference in
the name either implied the region from which the art originated or the
time period when the art was developed. These three names, and there are many
others, refer to Filipino Martial Arts where skills in both empty hand and
weapons are developed using similar, if not the same, training methods to
teach both. Practitioners of these arts are noted for their ability to fight
with weapons or empty hands interchangeably.

Eskrima and Arnis are the names primarily used in the Philippines today.
The name Kali is seldom used in the Philippines and in most cases is an unknown term for eskrima.

##### The FMA are known as being weapon arts. What about empty hand skills ?

Most people think the FMA are stick fighting arts only. This is a common
misconception because the rattan sticks are one of the primary tools used
in training. They do use the sticks for combat, but that is not all there is to
the arts. The FMA are equally based in weapon skills and empty hand skills
(such as kicking, punching, trapping, and grappling). The FMA cover all
the fighting ranges, defending against armed and unarmed attacks with
whatever is available. What is available maybe the rattan sticks or it could
be other types of weapons or just the fighter's empty hand skills. The FMA
teach the interrelationship between empty hand skills and weapons.
Therefore the FMA should be considered a complete martial arts system
that develops many different types of skills for combat, not just simply a
stick fighting art.

Keep in mind that there are also other FMA that do not involve the use of
stick fighting as a training method. Dumog, Sikaran, and Panantukan are
examples of FMA that are based on empty hand skills only.

##### Why are the FMA considered simple arts (un-complex) ?

When the FMA are referred to in this manner they are discussing the
systematization, not the effectiveness of the arts. The FMA were designed
to be simple to learn. The arts were originally used to train fellow
villagers in a short period of time for combat against other villages and
foreign invaders. There was no time or reason to teach flashy techniques
nor techniques that required special abilities. Only the skills that were
proven effective and could be easily taught were used. The people who
were learning this art depended on its effectiveness and simplicity for
their survival. They were generally not martial artists or soldiers, just
villagers who had to defend their land. Some of these people had no
natural talent for fighting. They had to become proficient or perish in
battle. There was no time to teach a detailed and complex martial art if
the village was under immediate threat. Therefore, good generic methods
and solutions needed to be taught in the quickest time possible. This
philosophy of simplicity is still used today and is the underlying base of
the FMA.

##### Why is it often said that "more is not better" in the FMA ?

In keeping with the philosophy of simplicity, most of the techniques are
taught early in training. This is an important key to the FMA. The student
can pick what works for him and create his own method of combat. The
basic principles are more important than raw numbers of technique. The
difference between an older practitioner and a newer one is not the
knowledge of greater numbers of techniques, but rather the skill in
executing a smaller number of personally selected techniques. Each FMA
practitioner keeps a small core of basic techniques that can handle many
different types of situations. Keeping it simple is one of the underlying
principles of the FMA.

##### Why are the names of techniques so different ?

Each practitioner having personal variations on technique explains why
the FMA techniques have very generic descriptions to the names. The core of
the arts are the same, just the variations are different. This is especially
true when the FMA are compared to many of the Japanese martial arts.

Also take into account, that there are 7,107 islands in the Philippines.
Each has its own dialect and on many islands a different language from its
neighboring islands. One simple technique can have thousands of names and they
are all right.

##### Some of the basic principles of the FMA

* Only the skills that are proven effective and can be easily taught are used.

* Keep the overall strategy simple.

* Each FMA practitioner keeps a small core of basic techniques suited to him.

* Many theories for weapon and empty hand are interchangeable.

* Always keep the flow going.

* Use angles to minimize the opponents attack.

* Use center line off the angles to attack.

##### Are the FMA composite arts ?

Absolutely. If the idea is to use only what works, then new methods are
always considered. Some of the techniques are discovered independently, some
were taken from other sources.

Sources for other arts being incorporated into the FMA.

1) Peaceful culture trade - The Philippine Islands are strategically located
in the center of the trade routes. This creates opportunities to be exposed
to many different cultures and their martial arts.

2) Defense - The Filipinos had to defend against many foreign invaders and
also often fought between themselves. Techniques were developed to either
counter or duplicate combat skills of the enemy.

##### What are the characteristics of the FMA ?

The characteristics of the FMA vary from style to style. The spectrum
below indicate where the FMA stand in relation to other arts. These levels
of characteristic are general for each art. There is really no way to
specifically label each art other than in general terms. At one moment the
art may appear linear, but at another moment appear very much circular. I
have listed the general characteristic of each art.


Symbol | Martial Art | General Classification
* | Filipino Martial Arts | linear, external, hard/soft
0 | Shotokan Karate | linear, external, hard
% | Tai Chi Chuan | circular, internal, soft

Circular[----------%---------------*---------------------------0------] Linear

Internal[--%--------------------------------------------*0------------] External

Soft [-%--------------------------*----------------------------0---] Hard

##### Why are triangles and circular or semi-circular moves common to the FMA ?

Triangles are an important symbol in the FMA. The triangle is one
of the strongest geometrical structures and is used in the FMA to
represent strength. Many schools incorporate the triangle into their
school's logo. The triangle is also used to describe many theories
in the FMA. Some of these theories are footwork, stances,
foundations of disarms, and theories of attack.

The circular aspect of the FMA can be easily seen in Kali Villabrille/
Largusa system, wherein they zone out of the attacking angle. However,
the most glaring example of the circular moves in FMA is in the empty
hand disarms or in their foot sweeps.


##### What is the "live hand" ?

A VERY important concept in the FMA

The live hand is the opposite hand that does not contain the main
weapon. If you are right handed, it is your left hand. It is referred to as
being alive because it is used actively in combat for checking, blocking,
striking, and as support to the disarms and locks. In many of the
techniques, the alive hand is the major contributor to the success of the

"The live hand is the real weapon." - Dan Inosanto

Bantay-Kamay (The Live Hand)

The Bantay-Kamay (lit. guardian hand) is the secondary weapon in the FMA.
In a Solo Baston (single stick) situation, it is the empty hand, the Dagger
hand in Espada y Daga and the auxiliary/secondary baton in Double Baston.

Use of the Bantay-Kamay is developed during free-flow drills. The Bantay-Kamay
may take the following functions/actions:

1. Pigil (Jamming) - stopping a strike or attack
2. Paayon (Flowing - Go with the force) - redirecting a strike
3. Suntok-Tusok (Punch or Thrust) - a secondary attack during Solo Baston
or Multiple weapons drill/engagement. Also known as Sogo (Spearhand attack).
4. Dukot-Batok (Head Lock or Grab) - a grappling or throwing technique
during Solo Baston engagement. May also be executed in Multiple Weapons
environment by using the Punyo (butt or pommel).
5. Sampal-Kalawit (Palm Strike or Hook) - a palm-strike or hooking
technique leading to a take-down during Solo Baston engagement. May also be
executed in Multiple Weapons environment by using the blade portion (near
the hilt) of the stick or weapon.
6. Saplit (Centrifuge Disarm) - a complimentary technique leading to
disengagement or disarm of the opponent's weapon(s).
7. Concierto (Coordinated/Tandem Weapons/Hands) - a blind side or
inside technique that uses the Bantay-Kamay in coordination with the
primary weapon to execute a simultaneous counter-attack and control.
8. Hawak-Sunggab (Hold or Grab) - the restraint of the opponent's weapon
hand for the subsequent execution of a counter or a disarm.

There are many more variations and definitions regarding the use of the
Bantay-Kamay, but they can be classified under two general classifications:

1. Salisi - (Opposite Directions)
a. Salising Papasok aka Salisok
(Opposite Directions - Inwardi, aka Ops-in)
b. Salising Palabas aka Salibas
(Opposite Directions - Outward, aka Ops-out)
in addition the movements are classified as :
- Planchada (Horizontal)
- Aldabis or San Miguel (Diagonal)
- Bagsak or Bartikal (Vertical)

2. Concierto (Coordinated/Tandem Movement
a. Papasok (Inward)
b. Palabas (Outward.

These classifications are descriptive of the relationship of
the counter to the attacker's striking arm. If the attacker's arm or weapon
is pushed towards the attacker's body, it is classified as inward and

##### What is the cane they are talking about ?

The FMA sometimes refer to the rattan stick used in training as a cane. The
standard cane is usually between 17" to 30" in length. Keep in mind that all
lengths of sticks are also used in training, from 4" to 6'.

##### What is sinawali, espada y daga, solo baston, crossada ?

These are descriptions of the methods of using weapons in combat

Sinawalli is the weaving pattern a practitioner uses when working with two
weapons. These patterns are commonly used as a drill to teach coordination of
both hands. When the player can perform sinawali well enough by themselves,
they move on to perform the drill with a partner. To do the drill with a
partner, the two players face each other a go through the drill symmetrically.
When this can be done well enough, the players throw variations and movement
into the drill. In the end, the drill becomes a type of sparring exercise.
Because of the way the players work together in these drills, sinawali is
sometimes referred to "give and take" drills in many of the FMA styles.

Below are descriptions of there sinawali drills. The first two are common to
most of the FMA.

+ rh = right hand
+ lh = left hand
+ sbs = snap back strike
+ fts = follow through strike
+ Ready chamber position.
+ Start with lh under right arm,
+ rh over right shoulder
+ Target levels can be any level.
+ Sample Numbering system
+ #1 - left head
+ #2 - right head
+ #8 - right knee
+ #9 - left knee


1) rh to left temple (#1 fts strike)
lh weaves out during #1 to chamber over left shoulder

2) rh to strike to right knee (#8 sbs strike)
returns to chamber under left arm, back in ready but opposite side

3) - 4) Same as above but reversed.


1) rh to left temple (#1 fts strike)
returns to over left shoulder

2) lh to left temple (#2 fts strike)
returns to over left shoulder as #3 starts

3) rh to right temple (#2 sbs strike)
returns to under left arm, back in ready but opposite side

4) - 6) Same as above but reversed.


1) lh to left temple (#2 sbs strike)
returning lh to right shoulder as rh leaves for move #2
( ie left will be on top)

2) rh to left temple (#1 sbs strike)
returning rh to same position as lh leaves for move #3

3) lh to left temple (#2 sbs strike)
Same as #1 move but lh returns to chamber under right shoulder

4) rh to left temple (#1 fts strike)
rh returns to left shoulder

5) lh to left temple (#2 fts strike)
lh is returning to left shoulder chamber replacing the rh. The rh
will start to do a number #2 strike and is weaving in between the lh
coming to chamber and your head. The rh going to a #2 strike will start
move #6. At this point the sinawali is the same but reversed.

6) - 10) Same as above but reversed.

##### What is espada y daga ?

Espada y daga is the method of using a stick(sword) and dagger in
combination. The sinawalis can be considered espada y daga if all the
variations of sinawali weapons are considered. However, Espada y daga
generally refers to a more linear sword and dagger approach similar to that
used in European sword arts.

##### What is solo baston ?

Solo baston is the method using only one stick with empty hand strikes in
combat. Strong use of the alive hand is noted.

##### What is crossada ?

Crossada is Filipino for crossing. It is a the method where weapons or empty
hands are used in a crossing pattern for simultaneous offense and defense. It
is similar to other martial art's X Block, however it is not a static block.
It involves movement and angling to defend against the strike. There is a
slight trap at the moment of intersection at which time the attack is given.
This all happens in one movement. This is one of the primary ways the flow is
established during combat. It give the opponent no time to react because there
is no break during the defensive and offensive moves.

##### What are ranges of combat ?

There are many ranges to combat and each one of the FMA has its own
method of labeling and numbering them. Some styles can have as many as
16 ranges defining all types of combat. Below is an example of two. The
first is the four ranges which are commonly used to explain simple ranges
in relation to other martial arts. The second is an example of ranges for
stick vs. stick fighting. There are many different types of ranges in the
FMA. Each style uses different types to utilize the style's strengths and
explain its method.


1) WEAPONS - No empty hand technique can hit therefore only weapons are used.

2) KICKING / PUNCHING - Typical range for Karate / Tae Kwon Do / Kung Fu.

3) TRAPPING - Trapping, close punching, elbows, head butts are used in this

4) GRAPPLING - Typical Wrestling / Ju-Jitsu / Chin Na / Aikido


1) FAR - you can hit you opponent's hand with the end of your stick as he

2) MEDIUM - you can now check your opponent's hand with your opposite hand.

3) CLOSE - you can now hit the opponent with the butt of your stick.

##### What are the 12 angles of attack ( also known as 12 strikes ) ?

The twelve strikes/angles are common to most FMA styles. They are the
basic strikes or direction of strikes covering all angles of attack. Most
styles use basically the same numbering system with slight variation. The
point is to learn how to dissect and classify the strikes and develop
methods of defense and offense using these 12 angles. At an advanced
level the student should learn the similarities of the these 12 angles and
further simplify classification and responses to their attacks. The first five
angles are common to many of the styles.

There is usually one set of numbers used for defensive angles and offensive
strikes. These numbers are based on attacks with the right hand only.

As an example ....

A backhand strike with the right hand would be a number two strike
coming in at angle #2 ( therefore 2 at 2 ).
If the same attack is done with the left hand the strike is still a
number two however it is at angle #1( therefore 2 at 1 ).

##### What is the flow ?

Obtaining the ability to flow in combat is the ultimate goal of a FMA
practitioner. A student of the FMA attempts to smoothly move between the
ranges of combat without any disturbance in the transition. This requires
skills in all four of the ranges ( with and without weapons) , the ability to
put motion and technique together continuously, and the sensitivity to fit
your technique to your opponent's. These attributes create a smoothness
in combat which is called the flow.


##### What type of structure is the class usually taught by ?

This is a matter of the instructors preferences, however most classes are
taught in an informal manner. This is especially true when compared to
some of the other more traditional Asia martial arts.

##### Do the FMA use a belt ranking system ?

The FMA until recently did not use a belt ranking system like other martial
arts. Belt rankings and instructor-ship rankings are now becoming more common
in many of the FMA styles.

The FMA are becoming more popular then ever. There are more students, styles,
and instructors. As such, the current trend is to systematize and organize FMA
schools in hopes of propagating the art and maintaining high standards within
the organizations. Ranking is becoming more common within some styles. Other
styles still maintain the philosophy of not using a ranking system.

##### What about uniforms ? Are they standard ?

Uniforms are not always used. There is no standard uniform like there is
in Karate or Judo. When uniforms are used, there are usually a
combination of karate uniform or sweat pants, a t-shirt, and sometimes a
traditional vest is worn. The style worn can even vary within a school or

##### Why are shoes worn most of the time in training ?

Shoes are worn most of the time during training for two purposes.
1) To protect the feet from damage from projected or dropped sticks
2) To train in clothing that in worn in everyday life

##### Will I get a good work out practicing the FMA ?

That will depend on your instructor and style. Some instructors will work
students harder than other styles or instructors, some don't. Most of the
instructors practice the FMA as a second art. Therefore they rely on the
primary art for the hard workout and teach more skill development while
teaching FMA. One thing is certain, if the basic cane strikes are practiced
often and correctly then there will be a noticeable difference in forearm and
wrist strength. When selecting an instructor work-out intensity would be a good
question to ask.


I don't believe this section of the FAQ will ever come close to being
completed because of the quick and constant change in the FMA.

Any information that you may have would be appreciated. If you have
information send it to the aforementioned email address. Please research the
information as well as possible for accuracy.

The history of the FMA is hard to trace, especially when it comes to the
three W's ( Who did What When ). I have used information from books,
other instructors, and those people who were good enough to email
information about their style and instructor. Since the information on
instructors and styles is a mix of the information I collected from various
sources, I do not claim that it is 100% accurate. The instructors and styles
listed are responsible for the recent growth of the FMA. I have NOT listed
them in any arranged order of importance and as I said, the listing is not
yet complete. Most of this information was sent to me by students of the
listed instructor. I compile similar information, edit it, and organize it
for presentation. I do use complete sections sent to me if they are written
well and can be mixed into the presentation.

I hope this section will be more complete in future revisions. For now, please
accept it as uncompleted work.


I don't know all the styles of the instructors. If there was no style to
list then the art may have been labeled either Arnis, Eskrima, or Kali.

Spelling - Eskrima is the same as Escrima. Eskrima is the older spelling.
Both are used throught this FAQ.

The styles/systems discussed are:

Babao Arnis
Bahad Zu'bu Mangtas Baraw
Balintawak International
Black Eagle Eskrima
Bohol Method
Combat Kalaki Arcanis
De Cuerdas
Defensor Method
Doblete Rapillon
Doce Pares
Dog Brothers Martial Art
Filipino Boxing and Dumog
Garimot Arnis
German Arnis
Inayan System of Eskrima
Inayan Systems International
Inosanto Kali
Kadena de Mano
Kalis Ilustrisimo
Kombatan Arnis
Kun Tao Silat
Kuntaw Lima-Lima
Lapu Lapu Vinas Arnis
Lightning Scientific Arnis (Lema Scientific Kali Arnis)
Modern Arnis
Modern Arnis 80 (MA-80)
Moro-Moro Style
Moro-Moro Orabes Heneral
Oido de Caburata Arnis
Pronus-Supinus Cadena De Mano
Rapido Realismo Martial Arts
San Miguel Eskrima
San Miguel Eskrima Asosasyon of Cebu
Sayoc Kali
Serrada Escrima
SLD (Serrada, Largo Mano, De Cuerdas)
Sudlud Eskrima
Villabrille System
Visayan Style
Warriors Eskrima

The major players shown are in no particular order.

Babao Arnis
Narrie Requina Babao (1945-2013)

The personal style of Narrie Babao. Based on Doce Pares, Villabrille Kali,
Kuntaw, and Karate.

Bahad Zu'bu Mangtas Baraw
Epifianio "Yuli" Romo

Bahad Zu'bu is a situational, multi-distractive fighting art.
It seeks to restore primitive fighting methods through the
study of combat weapons and the history, culture and philosophy
of the Philippine Archipelago. There are no complicated forms,
techniques or "Set-up" routines.

The 3 main fundamentals underpinning the art are:
- Enganyo (Baiting)
- Monitoring
- Preparation

These fundamentals are developed through the use of 2-man interactive
drills. The drills are either:
-Counter armed Tactics (CAT)
-Counter Un-armed Tactics (CUT)

Multiple opponents are also covered In Bahad Zu'bu the following
weapons are among those used:
-Baraw / Pisaw (knife)
-Bio-Olisi (42" Staff)
-22", 24", 28" & 32" Sticks
-Edged Swords
-Empty Hands

The fundamental concepts outlined above are applied to all weapons.
The movements are the same but the application varies slightly.
This allows for a consistent frame of reference and a shorter time
to become proficient in a variety of weapons.

In Bahad Zu'bu the aim is always:
- Proper Learning
- Proper Understanding

One can not be gained without the other. During study the
practitioner's mind frequently becomes exhausted before the body.

major players : "Yuli" Romo, Jaime Cruzana, Nick Canuday, John Chan,
Romy Cruz

Balintawak International
Venancio Bacon (1912-1980)

Balintawak International Self-Defense was founded in 1957 with Venancio Bacon
as its grandmaster. GM Bacon later formed another style under his own name,
but Balintawak International continues on.

major players : Jose Villasin, Teofilo Velez, John Chiuten

Balintawok Escrima
Bobby Taboada

Taboada's Balintawok Escrima is a style that incorporates many styles of
Escrima and Filipino boxing. It also contains many elements of the Doce Pares
style. It is a style strongly based on speed. The primary training tool
is the single stick. It has a unique training method that allows its
players to do drills that are much quicker and closer to the training
partner than many other styles of FMA.

major players : Irwin Carmichael, John Larson, Dean O'Hare, David Russel,
George Manderatlias, Randy Cornell

Black Eagle Eskrima
Carlos Navarro (1926-)

A system founded in the styles of Eskrima de Llave, Eskrima de Avanico
and New Generation. The techniques, training and applications of Black
Eagle are trained and employed through solo and paired drills to cover
long, medium and short ranges.

The weapons of Black Eagle Arnis-Eskrima include the single stick,
double stick, staff, single dagger, double dagger, short sticks, chain
and empty hands. The style also incorporates the use of swords and sword
drills and a flail called 'de Cadena'.

The drills for each category are sub-grouped into the three styles that
make up the basis of this system: Eskrima de Llave (the key), Eskrima de
Avanico (the fan), and New Generation. It should be noted that these
styles are not taught as isolated entities, but rather as conceptual
components embodying elements of what once were separate systems.

Pangamot is the term used to describe the Black Eagle empty hand
component. It includes extensive locking techniques focusing on the
wrist, arm and shoulder, but finger locking remains a black eagle
specialty. Striking techniques incorporate punching, elbows, low line
kicking and also knees. Pangamot also includes leg reaps and sweeps, and
throwing exercises called four direction throws. Black Eagle Pangamot
also includes a limited groundfighting capability with various leg and
arm locks.

Rank in Black Eagle Eskrima is divided into four levels: Beginners,
Junior Instructor, Senior Instructor and Master. Progression through the
ranks is in most cases a matter of talent, and not dependant on how long
a student has been a practitioner of that art (such as is the case in
other systems). Advanced students can learn various parts of the
curriculum at any time they like. There is no strict progression in the
teaching of Black Eagle eskrima, and thus, no set time limits to class
length or achievement of rank.


major players : Epping Atillo, David Tsang, Jerry Collins, Graham Jamieson,
Ming Lee, John Taylor, Miles Henderson.

Bohol Method
Regino Ellustrisimo

Regino Ellustrisimo was the uncle of Floro Villabrille.

major players : Al Concepcion, Dan Inosanto

Nonoy Gallano

The Classical Combat Eskrima Kali Association is an international
network of schools dedicated to the teaching of the FMA. The
association's approach to this fighting art is holistic in nature. It
encompasses not only the physical techniques of Kali but also places
emphasis on Oriental philosophy and Meditation practices. Complete
discipline and moral/spiritual growth are heavily stressed.

Combat Kalaki Arcanis
Jan Nycek (1964 - )

An eclectic, fairly new FMA system. Combat Kalaki was founded by
Jan Nycek in 1998 in Olesnica near Wroclaw (Poland). A combination
of Kalaki Arcanis, Doce Pares, Aiki Jitsu, BAS-3 (system for special
forces of army and police), Boxing and Kickboxing. Since the Combat
Kalaki by definition is for self defense, the training is for practical
usage in every day reality.

major players : Krzysztof Gajewski, Artur Niezgoda, Andrzej Grajczyk

Defensor Method
Nate Defensor

A mix consisting mainly of Serrada, Pekiti-Tirsia, and Villabrille systems,
with a strong mixture of specific elements from silat (mainly the takedowns),
muay Thai, and western boxing.

major players : Rich Draney, Ed Kuliess, Dale Hinton, Greg Goldmakher

De Cuerdas
Gilbert Tenio (1918-1994)

A quick, very basic, but effective style of Eskrima.

major players : Richard Tenio, Arthur Gonzalez Sr., Dentoy Revillar, James Muro, Wayne Caseria, Richard Van Donk

Derobio Escrima
Braulio Tomada Pedoy (1900 - 1993)

Derobio is based on passing, either with the stick or hand, as opposed to
directly blocking the attack, once passed the emphasis is on controlling with
either locks and/or disarming. 12 locks are taught for each pass on the 12
angles of attack and up to 12 counters for each lock and/or disarm. Each pass
is also taught with what is called the "Basic 3" which is 3 strikes always
done across the body high, low, middle. The style is close range and is good for
"self defense" against a skilled or unskilled opponent. The style has a lot to
offer against a heavy weapon that might possibly not be stopped with a direct block.
Brauilo Pedoy opened his first Escrima school in 1961 in Hawaii.

major players : Eduardo Pedoy, Christopher P. Siangco, Tyrone Takahashi, Michele Navares,
Carlton Kramer, K. Peacock, P. Schmall, Ron England, L. Castillo, Chaz Paul Siangco

Doblete Rapillon (AKA Mena Style)
Patricio Mena

A style that emphasizes multiple attacks which are quickly delivered
without gaps or openings.

major players : Jose Mena

Doce Pares
Tirso, Eulogio "Euling", Silvestre, Felimon "Momoy", Rufino, and
Ciriaco "Cacoy" Canete with Lorenzo, Teodoro "Doring", and Fredercio Saavedra.

The current head and President of Doce Pares was Cacoy Canete (1919-2016).

Doce Pares is a world leading organization of the traditional Philippine
martial art known as Eskrima or Arnis - stick fighting. Magellan's
sword-wielding conquistadors fell to Maharaja Lapulapu who used Eskrima to
defeat the Spanish at the battle of Mactan. Doce Pares is the home of the
most renown expert of the art, Grandmaster Ciriaco "Cacoy" Canete.

In the late 1920's, eskrima attained a high level of popularity in Cebu
City, the second largest city in the Philippines (Cebu island is located in
the center of the Philippine archipelago). In 1932, the most renown
eskrimadors, mainly from Cebu, founded Doce Pares as a society to promote
the only original native martial art of the Philippines. The name Doce Pares
reflects the Spanish influence on the Philippines and signifies "Twelve
Pairs," referring to the twelve basic strikes and twelve basic defenses of

Since its beginning, Doce Pares has produced many champions in eskrima
competitions. At the founding of Doce Pares, Lorenzo Saavedra, then
recognized as the foremost eskrimador in Cebu City, became its first famous
Grandmaster. He was ably supported by three other top-rated masters: Teodoro
and Frederico Saavedra - Lorenzo's nephews - and by Filemon Canete. Later,
Master Teodoro Saavedra rose to prominence as the best fighter in the Doce
Pares society. Master Eulogio Canete, Filemon's older brother, was elected
first president of Doce Pares and remained in that position until his death
in 1988.

During World War II, Master Teodoro Saavedra, an active guerrilla, was
captured and killed by the Japanese occupying forces. Shortly after
Teodoro's death, Master Ciriaco Canete, also a resistance fighter, emerged
as Doce Pares' foremost fighter and innovator. In the early 1950's, eskrima
techniques and tactics were analyzed, devised, modified and systematized by
Master Ciriaco Canete, based mostly on actual combat experience with rival
eskrimadors belonging to other associations. Among his many contributions to
the development of this martial art is eskrido, a combination of Judo and
eskrima techniques, as well as the most modern forms of eskrima-offense and

Since its founding, Doce Pares has enjoyed a special reputation among
Philippine martial arts organizations as the developer and innovator of the
newest styles and techniques in eskrima. The Doce Pares style is now
identified as the modern forms of eskrima and variations of eskrima such as
escrido and specialized defenses against knives, pistols, etc.

Doce Pares maintains its headquarters in Cebu City, Cebu, The Philippines,
just a few miles from the site where Lapulapu used eskrima to defeat the
Spanish conquistadors of Magellan in 1521. The headquarters is the site of a
training gym and is a frequent meeting point for eskrimadores and martial
artists from throughout the world. All martial artists are warmly invited to
visit the Doce Pares headquarters either while on tour of the Philippines as
a vacationer or as a student or observer.

Doce Pares
81A C.Padilla St.
Cebu City, The Philippines
Tel: (032) 261-5909 OR (032) 261-1352 (Doce Pares, the Philippines)
Fax: (732) 566-1571 (Doce Pares, USA)

major players : Richard Bustillo, Primo Albano, Saturnino Arcilla, Nonito
Limchua, Sal Kalinga, Emilio Lapurga, Aniceo Suan, Felix Yap, Narrie
Babao, Florencia Cautiverio, Wally Estropia, Danny Guba, Tom Meadows.

Dog Brothers Martial Arts
Head Instructor: Marc Denny

The three principle FMA roots of this "system of many styles" are
Inosanto Blend, Pektiti Tirsia, and Lameco. The system evolved out of the
fighting experience of a band of sweaty, smelly, psychopaths with sticks
known as the Dog Brothers. Fighting with unusually little gear (fencing
masks and street hockey gloves only) and the only rule of "be friends at
the end of the day", since 1988 the Dog Brothers have looked to push the

The system has an outer range game, a crashing game, a midrange game,
and standing grapple game, and a ground grapple game. Some of the
distinctive features of the system are its use of 6 ranges, an emphasis on
developing ambidexterity with the stick as a prelude to the emptyhand
skills of the system, that knife and disarms receive somewhat less
attention than in many FMA systems, and for a FMA system, there is an
unusual amount of grappling. When a stickfight goes to the ground is when
"DB stickgrappling" comes into play. DB Stickgrappling is a blend of FMA,
Brazilian Jiu Jitsu and some Bando Python Stick. The system also draws
upon Krabi Krabong, the weaponry forerunner to Muay Thai.

Major Players: Eric "Top Dog" Knaus, Marc "Crafty Dog" Denny, Arlan "Salty Dog" Sanford

Jack Santos

A style based on strong entry skills. Very hard and linear.

John LaCoste

Style that is noted for fluid footwork with crisp entries. Lacoste was
the recognized senior/leader in perhaps the largest Filipio community in
the USA in the 1960s/70s; Stockton, California.

major players : Al Concepcion, Dan Inosanto

Ciriaco "Cacoy" Canete (1919-2016)

A combination of Aikido, Judo, and Doce Pares Eskrima.

Felicisimo Dizon (1896-1984)

Felicisimo Dizon was taught Eskrima by 'the old man of Cebu' and Princess
Josefina, 'the Blind Princess', of the Pulahane tribe of Gandara, Samar. Dizon and Floro
Villabrille were friends and training partners. Angel Cabales was a student of Dizon.

Some claims have been made that Dizon's style was named De Cuerdas,
but those with long-term direct contact with Dizon's student Angel
Cabales claim that Dizon simply called his style Eskrima.

The videotape 'Sticks of Death', which is an interview with Angel Cabales,
Angel never makes any mention of De Cuerdas when he talks about Dizon.
Angel states that "he learned Serrada" from Dizon and then enhanced it.

major players : Angel Cabales (1917-1991)

Mauricio Fabia (1876-1961)

Basic Philosophy of Estrella:

The three fundamentals of the art are Distancia, Compas and Decision.
Although they sound simple, they are not.

Distancia refers to maintaining the right distance to your
attacker which will make you safer and give you more time to
make your own decision. It is also refers to understanding
your distance and relationship to the world and those around
you, to control your surroundings.

Compas refers to proper timing. This is not only means timing
as a fighting aspect, but also as the right time to act.

Decision refers to making a decision, but it also refers to the
ideas of loyalty and discipline. By making your decision you
must then stick to what you have chosen and see it through.

major players : Saturnino Quinto Fabia, Alfonso Quinto Fabia, Bernardo
Fabia Salinas, Flaviano F.Cabuang, Fortunato Rebualos, Cipriano Rebualos,
Marcelo Laurian, Quintin Malagayo, Manuel Quiros, Jerrick C. Salinas,
Michele Zuccollo, Doug Klinger.

F.A.T.E. - Filipino Martial Arts
Howard F. Bifson, Johnaleen K. Castro

The F.A.T.E. organization's FMA system is a blend of Remy Presas's
Modern Arnis, Inosanto Kali, Doce Pares Eskrima, Kalis Illistrisimo,
JKD-JKDU concepts, Aikido and Ki Healing Concepts, GM Jim Morell's
Aiki Jitsu-Military Police Tactical System and Sgt. V. A. Castro's
Combat Eskrima.

The system not only covers techniques and their application, but also
the abilities needed to teach different people. This involves not only
teaching toward one goal, but the ability to teach at each student's
level of contact and acceptability. Also, making sure that reality based
issues are highlighted.


Filipino Boxing & Dumog
Lucky Lucaylucay

Lucaylucay family Filipino Boxing and wrestling arts that are were taught
by Lucky's son, Ted Lucaylucay, prior to Ted's untimely death in 1996.
Ted taught it with Kali and Jeet Kune Do at his school.

Garimot Arnis
Gat Puno Abon Baet

Garimot Arnis is founded by Gat Puno Abon "Garimot" Baet in July 1989 in
Miami, Florida. We now have instructors and contact people in different
states of the USA, Venezuela and the Philippines. We are the biggest
Arnis-Eskrima-Estokada Organization in Laguna, Philippines.

Practitioners of the martial arts that want to know more about the Garimot
System of Arnis-Harimaw Buno and Hilot should check http://www.garimot.com
or e-mail at Gatpuno@aol.com.

major players : Shane Singh, Alfredo Sardinas, Glenn Harris,
John Aviles, Tex Liang, Michael Kobayashi, Andrew Ma, Alan Del Mundo,
Dennis Duria, Daniel Donzella, Tim Rivera, Yuri Jimenez, Goyo Baet,
Daniel Baet, Doy Baldemor.

German Arnis (DAV)
Dieter Knuettel

Modern Arnis, that is based on the styles of Professor Remy Presas and GM
Ernesto Presas with influences from Suro Mike Inay. It covers many aspects
of FMA: Sinawali, Modern singlestick, classical Arnis, empty hands, knife,
selfdefense and much more. It has a strong emphasis on economy of motion and
applying the same techique in different situations with different weapons.
It has many exercises and drills for automatisation and reflex
development/conditioning. The style is taught as martial art and self
defense and does not teach competition fighting. It uses modern teaching
methods for easy learning.

major players : Hans Karrer, Jorgen Gydesen, Peter Rutkowski, Thorbjorn
Hartelius, Johan Skalberg, Alfred Plath, Helmut Meisel.

Inayan System of Eskrima
Mike Inay (1944-2000)

The Inayan System of Eskrima is composed of six FMA systems, with
three core systems. The primary core system within the Inayan System
of Eskrima is Serrada, as taught to Mangisursuro Mike Inay over many years of
study with Serrada's Grandmaster Angel Cabales. Suro Inay also studied
extensively under Grandmaster Maximo Sarmiento (founder of Kadena de Mano) and
was the first recognized Master of Kadena de Mano under GM Sarmiento.

Each system in the Inayan System is taught in its entirety, following
the methodology of teaching the pure art first, then allowing each
student develop their own composite personal style. The Inayan System is
"blade" oriented vs. "stick" oriented.

The following are the six systems taught in the Inayan System:

1) Serrada Eskrima as taught by the late GM Angel Cabales in the mid-1960s
and 1970s.
- see style description elsewhere in this FAQ
2) Kadena De Mano
- see style description elsewhere in this FAQ
3) Sinawali
- see style description elsewhere in this FAQ
4) Inayan Dequerdas
- Inayan Dequerdas is a mid-range style stressing female-triangle
footwork and strong augmented blocks.
5) Espada y Daga
- see style description elsewhere in this FAQ
6) Inayan Larga Mano
- A long range system of Eskrima. Evolved to use a longer/heavier cane
(~40") and to use the cane as if it were a Kampilan, the longest
sword found in the Philippines. This style is credited as being
the first complete formal style to teach the use of the Kampilan.
(The Kampilan was a weapon use by Lapulapu's men to kill Ferdinand
Magellan in 1521.)

The Inayan System of Eskrima also employs the following in varying degrees:
Solo/Doble Baston (single/double stick), Solo/Doble Punyal
(single/double dagger), Sipat (kicks), Sibat/Bankow (staff/spear),
Pamuok (hand-to-hand fighting), Lipad-lipad (bow/arrow, blowgun),
Vital Points.

major players : Jason Inay, Jena Inay, John Peterson, Frank DeFanti, Joseph Tesoro

Inayan Systems International
Mike Inay (1944-2000)

"To be a truly complete and effective fighting defense, a style must have an
arsenal of competent techniques and theory to pull from to use in any
situation without borrowing from another style."
- Suro Mike Inay

In Inayan Eskrima we study several styles of Eskrima but focus on three core
styles which are Kadena de Mano, Serrada, and Inayan Largo Mano. Each is
taught in its whole form as a complete style and covers a specific range:
short (Kadena), medium (Serrada) and long (Largo). Having these three styles
that cover these three separate ranges is probably the key to balancing out
Inayan Eskrima. All three (short, medium and long) are essential. When the
Inayan student reaches the proper level he or she can then understand how
each piece fits the greater puzzle and put them together as it fits their
particular way of fighting.

Each style has its own advantages and is very effective in its own right but
might not be the best answer to every combative situation. For example, a
Largo Mano stylist is very adept at long ranges, but what happens if that
student is standing in a corner when confronted and has no space to move the
way he or she was taught? In this particular situation, having a good
working knowledge of a medium or short range style would be very beneficial.

Having 3 ranges at his or her disposal is a great asset to the Inayan
student. Whatever situation they might find themselves in, the student can
quickly adapt to the surroundings at hand. They can then flow easily from
range to range and/or style to style, depending on the circumstance, without
corrupting their objective.

Taking this a step further, the advanced student can understand how to
implement long-range theory in short range engagement or possibly
medium-range theory in long range engagement.

Below is a brief description of the three core styles that make up the back
bone of Inayan Eskrima in Inayan Systems International.

Inayan Kadena de Mano - Kadena De Mano translates to chain of hand and is
a combination of empty-hand and knife/dagger techniques. It covers basic and
advanced hand and knife drills as well as permuted locks from the
basic/advanced drills. Lock/flow/trap practice drills are stressed as well
as subject control through the use of Vital Points (Pressure Sensitive

Inayan Serrada - Serrada translates to either "to close" or "close
quarters". The style is noted for using a shorter cane, male triangle
footwork, and quick, linear, inclose fighting. This blade and stick style
translates well into empty-hand applications.

Inayan Largo Mano - Largo Mano translates to "long hand" and is a long range
system of Eskrima. Evolved to use a longer/heavier cane (~40") and to use
the cane as if it were a Kampilan, the longest sword found in the
Philippines. This style is credited as being the first complete formal style
to teach the use of the Kampilan.

Supplemental styles include:

Inayan Dequerdas
Inayan Sinawali
Inayan Espada y Daga
Inayan Sibat/Bankow

major players : Emanuel Hart, Jeffrey Elliott, Steve Klement, Cory Hanosh.


Inosanto Kali
Dan Inosanto & Richard Bustillo (1942-2017)

Composite style based on instruction received from many of the
instructors listed in this FAQ. It is a complete system with many different
types of Filipino weapons. The art uses many of the Jeet Kune Do concepts

major players : Paul Vunak, Cass Magda, Burton Richardson

Kadena de Mano - "Chain of Hands"
Max (Maximo) S. Sarmiento (193?-1982)

Kadena De Mano is a combination of empty-hand and knife/dagger
techniques. It covers basic and advanced hand and knife drills
as well as permuted locks from the basic/advanced drills.
Lock/flow/trap practice drills are stressed.

The reason we have FMA being taught today to the 'masses' is due
to the efforts of Max Sarmiento. In ~1965 Max worked in the Defense
Depot near Stockton, CA. A few of the workers were practicing karate
(specific style unknown) and one jokingly attacked Max. Max quickly
and effectively defended himself with his Kadena de Mano (Chain of Hands).
The karate students were impressed and asked Max to start teaching them his
style of FMA. Max resisted, but did start asking the local FMA Masters around
Stockton (of which there were many due to the high number of Filipino migrant
farm workers that had settled in that area). Max finally convinced Angel
Cabales to openly teach his style of Eskrima, Serrada Eskrima, to all those
that wanted to learn. Angel's school was the first example of FMA being
openly taught in the USA.
(The above story was contributed by Mangisursuro Mike Inay.)

major players : Mike Inay (1944-2000), Jimmy Tacosa, Jeffrey Elliott, Frank DiFanti

Kalis Ilustrisimo (AKA Olistrisimo)
Antonio "Tatang" Ilustrisimo (1904-1997)

A system composed of different styles and techniques, e.g. Estrella
Vertical, Florette, Boca y Lobo, Batanguena Serada, De Cadena, Media Traile,
and Warwok.

major players : Antonio Diego, Epifanio "Yuli" Romo, Rey Galang

Kombatan Arnis (AKA Arnis Presas Style)
Ernesto Amador Presas, Sr. (1945-)

Ernesto was taught arnis by his grandfather, Leon Bongco Presas. He was
taught double and solo baston, Sinawalis, Palis Palis (follow the force
system), force to force blocking system and the sunketi and Thrustsada system.

From his father he learned Tres Buntos (holding a stick in the middle and
a knife in the other hand), Dos Puntas (holding a stick in the middle) and
classical arnis. Classical arnis containing the systems/techniques of
espada y daga, Abaniko Doublada, Ocho Ocho (figure eight system), the up and
down and side to side striking.

The footwork for Kombatan Arnis is based on the traditional dances of the
Philippines, back and forth and V-shaped movements. There is also
a commonality between the footwork/stances of Kombatan and the
Japanese/Okinawan martial arts. This is due in part due to an influence
from traditional Okinawan weaponry.

The Presas's (Ernesto and Remy) modified the techniques they were taught to
try and get greater public acceptance by teaching the art in a standardized
format (stances and blocking techniques) and by not striking to the hand,
but hitting to the stick instead. This is credited for the art's introduction
into some public schools in the Philippines.

Traditional techniques and footwork remain in Kombatan Arnis by teaching
espada y daga, Abaniko Doublada, Sungekti, etc.

Because of the modification of the footwork, stances and such, Kombatan like
Modern Arnis is easily taught in a wide range of martial arts schools, such as
Taekwondo and Karate, since the students see commonality within the systems.

The heart of the Kombatan system is Palit Palit, or give and take drills.
It is this system or series of drills where the techniques of Kombatan
Arnis are applied and the concepts and strategies of the system are
developed. The drills help to develop flow, timing, distancing, speed,
endurance, everything comes out in these drills.

The weapon systems of Kombatan Arnis are the double and solo baston, espada
y daga, knife (daga), Mano Mano (empty hands), Dulo (palm stick), Benkaw
(staff). Traditional Okinawan weapons were also taught at the Kombatan
school in Manila.

While there is commonality between Kombatan and Modern Arnis, there are
differences as well. Remy Presas liked the styles and methods of
locking, where Ernesto likes the translation of stick to empty hand,
e.g. hitting the opponent and then taking them to the ground. Kombatan
contains locking techniques, but emphasis is more on the striking aspects
of the art.

major players : Pepe Yap, Roberto Presas, Fred Lazo, Ernesto Presas, Jr.,
Wolfgang Schnur, Edwin Lao.

KunTao Silat

What is Kun Tao Silat? First lets start in China. Kun Tao is the southern
(Fukien/Hokkien) word for martial arts. It means 'fist way'. In the northern
part of China, the same word is pronounced Chuan Fa. Now the modern Chinese
term for these arts is Wushu. When the Chinese traders started to trade with
other countries (i.e Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia) they of course bought
their arts with them. This occurred around the 9th century. However there
was a bigger movement around the 12th century during the Manchurian invasion.
The people who mainly left China at this point were the Hakka people. These
people were known for there traveling exploits. Their name Hakka means guest
family or royal family, hence perhaps the reasoning for the exodus from China
during the Manchurian invasion. In Indonesia the art was referred to as Kun
Tao. Now in Indonesia due to political reasons the government frowned upon
the use of Chinese, and outlawed the speaking of Chinese, the use of Chinese
names, and most of all the practice of Kun Tao. The Chinese have always been
a group that keeps to themselves and the art at this point kind of went
underground and was only practiced in the Chinese communities. What some
Chinese practitioners did was to just start calling their art Silat and
giving it an Indonesian name. So some Silat systems today have a strong
Chinese influence, like Mustika Kwitang.

Now because of this there is NO Kun Tao Silat art in Indonesia.

There is either (Chinese) Kun Tao or (Indonesian) Pencak Silat. This also IS
the same in Malaysia (they have Bersilat). Now because the Philippines is in
between these two countries it has had an influence from both AREAS. There
was no restriction put on the Chinese in the Philippines and therefore Kun
Tao was openly displayed. Which then became intermingled with Silat where
eventually it evolved into Kun Tao Silat. This is the art of the Tausug
people. They live in the Sulu islands of the Philippines. This is separate
from Mindinao. In the Sulu area the total art of Kun Tao Silat, which would
be the same as saying Pencak Silat or Bersilat, is still sub-divided into
two arts. Kun Tao being the empty hand phase and Silat being the blade
phase. The Kun Tao portion however did not retain the influence of the
Chinese, probably because the art most likely came from Borneo where they
practice an art called Kun Tao Bankui. Please remember that part of
Philippine history is that ten Datus left Borneo and settled in what is now
known as the Philippines. Therefore establishing a school called Bothoan,
where many things were taught including their martial arts. There has been
so much change and intermingling in the Philippines in these arts that most
Filipinos consider the art indigenous to the Philippines. This is why
Grandmaster Carlito Lanyada changed the spelling of his ancestor's art from Kun
Tao to Kuntaw, to relate more to the Tagalog tongue. So please keep in mind
that, yes, in the Philippines there is an art called Kun Tao Silat, but this
is not the case in Indonesia. One of my Indonesian teachers refers to his art
as Kun Tao Silat in order to give honor to both his Indonesian and Chinese teachers.

Note: "Kun Tao Silat de Thouars" is the system of Willem de Thouars.

major players : Steve Gartin, George Morin, Phillip Sailas, Randall
Goodwin, Richard Buel, Chuck Stahman, Dave Anderson, John Garcia, Keith
Moffett, Dave Sponenberg, Stewart Lauper, Chas Clements

Kuntaw Lima-Lima
Carlito Lanada

A form of hand and foot fighting not unlike China's Kung-Fu, from which
some claim it migrated to the Philippines, circa 1365.

major players : Steven Dowd, Bruce R. Corrigan, Bud Cothern, Bill Anderson.

Lameco Eskrima
Edgar G. Sulite (1958-1997)

Lameco Eskrima is a Filipino martial arts system combining several
different styles of Kali, Arnis and Eskrima which the founder, Punong Guro
Edgar G. Sulite, learned from prominent grandmasters in the Philippines.
Punong Guro Sulite began training at an early age under his father,
Helacrio Sulite, Sr., in their family's style. Edgar went on to train
with many of the most famous masters of the Filipino martial arts, including
GMs Abella, JD Caballero (1907-1987), Gaje, and Ilustrisimo.

The Lameco system is P.G. Sulite's distillation of techniques and
theories from these masters' styles, tempered by his years of
experience as a student, fighter, and teacher. The word "lameco" is
an acronym for "LArgo"-"MEdia"-"COrto," to emphasize that this style
is intended to be equally effective at all ranges, and in all situations.

Lameco teaches the use of the following Filipino weapons:
Solo Baston, Doble Baston, Espada y Daga, Solo Daga, Doble Daga,
Dos Manos Largos, Itak, Centro Baston, Susi and Mano y Mano.

major players : Christopher Ricketts, Benjamin Pueblos, Lowell Pueblos,
Pablito Gunio, Reynaldo Galang, Dan Inosanto, Leonard Trigg, Edwin Lim

Lapu Lapu Vinas Arnis
Jose Vinas (1906-1991)

Lapu Lapu Vinas Arnis Afecionados was created in 1932 by Jose Vinas
for the promotion and study of his system, Lapu Lapu Vinas Arnis.
LLVAA is based out of Bacolod City, N.O., RP and is under the
leadership of GM Wilson E. Vinas, son of Jose Vinas and inheritor
of the system.

The system is characterised by the following:
Primarily corto
Blade based (bastons are treated as edged during all phases of training)
8 angles/strikes
Weapon side is reversed
Use of 29 inch baston
Exclusive use of Lobtik vs Witik
Incorporates Sinawali, Espada y Daga, Solo Baston, Knife techniques

major players : Thomas F. Caulfield, Jr and Thomas F. Caulfield III

Lightning Scientific Arnis
Lema Scientific Kali Arnis
Benjamin Luna Lema (1919-2003)

A system which stresses, both, speed and power in the execution of
techniques encompassing solo and doble baston, Espada y Daga and empty
hand and foot combinations. The key emphasis being the "blanketing" or
"closing off" of an opponent's impending attack either by meeting the
strike via a simultaneous hit and counter or any various combinations of
disarms which would effectively neutralize any further or secondary
followups from the attacker.

The style consists of the following:
1. Single Baston/Espada
2. Double Baston/Espada
3. Espada y Daga (Sword and Dagger)
4. Tapado (50 inch two handed stick, also the primary training tool for the Filipino Kampilian Sword)
5. Bangkaw/Sibat (4-5 foot stick)
6. Daga (Knife)
7. Dos Pontas/Olising Maliit (4 inch pocket stick)
8. Pangamot (Empty Hand Techniques which include):
a. Sikaran (lowline kicking and base destruction including use of knees and shin)
b. Panununtukan (Filipino Boxing, use of the arms for attack including elbows)
c. Trancada (use of locks and breaking techniques)
d. Dumog (Filipino wrestling/grappling including throws and takedowns)

major players : Elmer Ybanez (1953-2004), Felipe Jocano Jr. Fil Buena, Nathan Dominguez,
Manolo Del Rosario, Joshua Medros, Gerrard Torio, Ramon Bernardo, Herman
Licanto, Joey Quiriones, Alex Ortinero, Jon Russel Escudero

Modern Arnis 80 (MA-80)
Dan Anderson

This is a branch of the original Modern Arnis founded by Grandmaster Remy
A. Presas. Already a national karate champion, Dan Anderson began training
under Remy Presas in 1980. Dan Anderson is a 6th Degree Black Belt (1992)
and Senior Master (1995) under Remy Presas. MA-80 was founded by Dan
Anderson and okayed by the late Grandmaster Presas in 1998. The fundamental
training and combative philosophy of MA-80 is found in the number 80. Remy
Presas would present many variations of any kind of offense or defensive
option, putting forth the concept of an infinite number actions one could do
in any given moment. When he was pressed, he was simple and direct in his
counter. The number "8" when turned on it's side is the symbol for
infinity. The "80" means the possibility of anything reduced to the
simplicity of the moment.

MA-80 primarily stresses the single stick and empty hand applications, with
the double stick, the espada y daga and the knife being secondary in the
training. The two main goals in MA-80 are development of The Flow and to
Counter-the-Counter. The entirety of the instruction laid out from 1980 -
2001 is given equal emphasis to achieve these goals.

A key point of MA-80 is understanding the principles which underlie the
physical techniques. As Remy Presas was a "hands on" teacher, he didn't go
much into explaining the concepts and principles of the art.
By understanding the core principles of what Remy Presas did, one can come
close to or reach his level of skill through the combination of hard
training and understanding. MA-80 is a Filipino art with an
American approach. Anderson has written several books on Modern
Arnis delineating the techniques and principles of Modern Arnis.

Association website:

Modern Arnis, Presas Style
Remegio "Remy" Amador Presas (1936-2001)

Founded in 1957, a style that uses single stick, double stick, knife/sword, and sword &
dagger. Uses modern teaching and training methods. The style is
distinguished by its emphasis on disarms and counters. Also uses forms
for training.

major players : Jeff Delaney, Randi Schea, Timothy Hartman, Jim Clapp, Irwin Carmichael,
Dieter Knuettel

Moro-Moro Style
Telesporo Subing-Subing

major players : Alejandro/Andrew Abrian

Moro-Moro Orabes Heneral
Alejandro Abrian

Moro-Moro Orabes heneral is an eskrima system founded in 1955. It has its
roots in the Visayan province of Samar, home to the Waray ethnic group.

Based on principles geared towards combat effectiveness, Moro-Moro Orabes
Heneral is arguably lacking in the aesthetic beauty commonly associated with
other Asian fighting arts. Pre-arranged drills are nonexistent in the
system because of their limiting, albeit decidedly appealing, nature.

Moro-Moro Orabes Heneral is a composite art containing subsystem
applications for long- and short-bladed weapons, batons, fisticuffs and

Oido de Caburata Arnis
Abraham Gubaton

Oido De Caburata Arnis is a complete system of FMA. The system utilizes
long & short sticks, bladed weapons, as well as empty hands and feet.
Tapado is said to have originated from this system.

major players : Sabas Gubaton, Gerson Balitor

Ingkong Leon Marcelo

A system taught in the Tagalog region of the Philippines. Amante
Marinas, Sr. wrote the first book on FMA published in the USA.

The word pananandata is derived from the three words paggamit (use) ng
(of) sandata (weapon). Its translation is the art of weaponry.
Pananandata uses a variety of weapons mostly of tools used for farming
or tools used in the kitchen. These tools have become part of the
weaponry of pananandata. These include:

* rigid weapons such as the one-hand held 31-inch stick, the two-hand
held at least 48" pingga, the 12" daga (dagger), the 14-inch diameter
dikin (ring), the tungkod (walking cane), the 20" bolo, the 16 3/4"
lilik (serrated slightly bent cutting knife) and the hawakan (Philippine tonfa).

* flexible weapons such as the lubid (rope) and the tanikala (chain).

* part rigid and part flexible weapons such as the tabak toyok
(nunchaku), latiko (horsewhip), and the bayawak tail.

* balisong (butterfly knife)

* throwing weapons such as knives, salpadpads (metallic disks),
stones, and bagakays (wooden torpedo-shaped darts).

major players : Amante Marinas, Sr. (1940- ), Amante Marinas, Jr.

Ciriaco "Cacoy" Canete (1919-2016)

Pangamot is a Cebuano term derived from the word "kamot", meaning
hand. Thus Pangamot is an empty handed art. It requires the fully
coordinated and rhythmic movements of the defender's entire body to
bring about the opponent's defeat through weapon disarms (panganaw) as
well as throws.

Conrado Tortal

The Pekiti-Tirsia system of kali is an infighting combat system. The
name is roughly translated as "to cut into small pieces, up close". It
is primarily concerned with close quarters (corto range) combat and
employs the traditional full-length stick, typically 30 inches in length
or more. It was founded by Conrado B. Tortal from the Negros Occidental
of the Visayan region. Today its tradition survives in the many students
of the system, headed by Grand Tuhons Leo Tortal Gaje, Jr. of Bacolod City
and Jerson "Nene" Tortal. Pekiti-Tirsia was bought to the USA in 1972 by
GrandMaster Leo T. Gaje.

The Pekiti-Tirsia system is also called the Doce Methodos (the 12
methods or subsystems of the Pekiti-Tirsia system) referring to the
distinct groupings of techniques and related application methods. A core
form of 64 movements illustrates many of those subsystems such as
abcederio, quartos cantos, dakup y punyo, etc. Most stick styles possess
an 8 or 12 attack form but few others have such an extended form. In
addition, the footwork of Pekiti-Tirsia distinguishs it from other
styles. Most movements are executed from a "loaded" short-range
position somewhat similar to a cat stance, the body coiled to generate
power from the abdomen instead of purely from the arms or shoulders.

Pekiti-Tirsia is comprised of 5 main weapons categories:

Solo - Single stick, sword or spear
Doble' - Double stick or sword
Espada y Daga - Sword and Dagger
Daga y Daga - Knife to Knife (both single and double)
Mano y Mano - Hand to Hand

Pekiti-Tirsia is based on 3 priciples:

3 Ranges - you are taught Close Range first as this is the most dangerous
and difficult to master; then Medium, and finally Long.

3 Levels - along with every attack you are taught several counters to that
attack, as well as several recounters to each counter. You
develop the ability to think at least 3 levels ahead in a fight.

3 Opponents - you are taught to be prepared to fight at least 3 opponents;
therefore, you don't spend too much time on any one opponent.

major players : Leo Gaje, Jr., Jerson "Nene" Tortal, William McGrath, Tom Bisio,
Eric Knaus, Philip Gelinas.

Pronus-Supinus Cadena De Mano System
Johnny Chiuten

Johnny Chiuten, of Filipino-Chinese descent, was born in Bogo, Cebu in the
late 1930's. He had an early introduction to martial arts from his father,
uncles, and grandfather. To maintain his cultural heritage he was sent
to China to be brought up in the traditional Chinese customs. Here he was
further exposed to more martial arts styles from his Chinese relatives.

Chiuten had been trained in the Balintawak style of arnis by
Grandmaster Anciong Bacon. After learning Balintawak he moved on and
studied the arnis de abanico style of Felimon Caburnay.

The resistance of the arnis de abanico masters to the introduction of the
new concepts of kung fu into their art resulted in several factions.
Those that learned the new abanico style (the collaboration of Master
Chiuten & Grandmaster Caburnay) were few and what they learned of the
changes were mostly the physical aspects.

The primary and perhaps trademark characteristic of the style is the use
of the crossed leg stance and its application in advancing and/or
retreating while delivering multiple blows. Trapping techniques with the
hands, feet, sticks & dagger, not to mention the intricate takedown and
locking techniques, make this style different from some Filipino arts.

The name given to this style, Pronus-Supinus (pron-supine) refers to the
yin-yang relationship of the hands and the Cadena de mano (chain of hands)
refers to the continuous hand movements as it relates to attack and/or
defence techniques. These incorporate the principles of the different arts
that form the bulk of the offensive and defensive arsenal. What forms the
very foundation of this art is the stancework, hand and foot technics, the
whole body being involved in the expression of the art. The stick and
dagger are merely the extensions of the total art. There has been no claim
of this art being a pure Filipino martial art style but rather, and
expression of the fighting philosophy of Johnny, as comprehended and
translated by his followers.

major players : Rene Navarro, Jopet Laraya

Rapido Realismo Martial Arts
Henry Espera

Rapido Realismo Martial Arts consists of two fighting systems, the
Rapido Realismo Kali/Arnis (aka Espera Kali/Arnis) for weaponry and
Rapido Realismo Sabakan (aka Espera Sabakan) for hand-to-hand encounters.

major players : Isagani Abon, Rommel Pabiliona, Lito Abraham


San Miguel Eskrima
Filemon "Momoy" Canete (1904-1995)

San Miguel Eskrima is an Espada y Daga style developed by Filemon "Momoy"
Canete. Master Canete defined his method as an "old" style of Doce Pares
that emphasized the use of the blade. Training stresses the correct body
mechanics, distancing and timing necessary to develop power, speed, and
accuracy when fighting.

The San Miguel Form is the centerpiece of this method of Eskrima. It's
great length develops endurance and refined strength. In addition to the
San Miguel Form, many other aspects of Espada Y Daga training are explored:

Disarming Techniques
Counters to Basic Attacks
Hi Speed Counter & Re-counter Exercises
Free Style Drills

Other methods of training develop a wide range of skills and cultivate
different qualities and abilities:

Ananangkil (50" Stick) (Power / Courage)
Bangkaw (Spear) (Body Connection)
Dos Armas (2 sticks) (Speed / Fluidity)
Cadena (Chain) (Speed / Timing / Wrist Power)
Unarmed Techniques (Self Defense/Throws/Locks)
Latigo (Whip) (Timing / Whole body Power)
Throwing Knife (Accuracy / Control)

A list of certified instructors may be found on the San Miguel Eskrima
Association Website: http://www.eskrima.com.

major players : Tom Bisio, Tom Arroyo, Patty Burkhalter, Mike Freel,
Steve Lamade, Doug Marcaide, Mike Marini, Tony Ortiz, James Seetoo,
Ngo Vinh-Hoi, Dave Tillett.

San Miguel Eskrima Asosasyon of Cebu
Filemon "Momoy" Canete (1904-1995)

San Miguel Eskrima is the art, science and personal expression of
Grandmaster Filemon "Momoy"Canete. The system is based on:

* Simplicity
* Directness
* Effectiveness
* Reality
* Tactics and Strategies
* Economy of Motion
* Personal Expression
* Personal Development
* Scientific Movements
* Concepts/Principles
* History
* Culture

Grandmaster Momoy was one of the head instructors of the Doce Pares Club
from 1933 through up to his passing in 1995 and one of its original founders
together with Lorenzo Saavedra, Teodoro Saavedra, Federico Saavedra,
Florentino and Eulogio Canete. San Miguel Eskrima is his Momoy's personal
expression and style within the club/system.

In San Miguel emphasis is heavily placed on developing proper and precise
body mechanics and dynamics and the recognition of the natural physiology and
application of movement and force, while using the concepts/principles of a
weapons-based training. Power, speed, strength, rhythm, reaction, reflex and
a keen eye are some of the attributes developed in San Miguel training.

San Miguel is a complete blade and edge based system that incorporates long
and short blades, single stick, double stick, stick and dagger, dagger,
long stick (ananangkil/gahab), spear (bankaw), bullwhip (latigo), cadena
(chain), throwing knives, Pangamut (empty hand Combat Judo and dumog

Association websites:

major players : Benjamin Culanag, Urbano Borja, Genaro Mendoza, Andreas
Canete, Isidro Casio, Albert Sales, Ramon Rubia

Sayoc Kali
Christopher Sayoc, Sr.

Sayoc Kali is one of the many components contained in the Sayoc Fighting
System. The Sayoc Fighting System as taught from 1972-1982 was comprised
of the following categories:

1. Single stick (28"-32")
2. Empty hands (foot works, body mechanics)
3. Double stick (24"-32")
4. Stick and dagger
5. Dagger (single blade-multiple blades)
6. Tabak-toyok (single/double)
7. Pana (projectile in assorted sizes)
8. Long stick (36"-50")
9. Whip (4'-12') (single/double)
10. Staff/spear
11. Short stick (18"-24")/tabak-maliit (single/double)
12. Shield and stick

The Sayoc System of Edged Weapons Dynamics is taught in three parts:
Sayoc Kali, Sayoc Silak and Sayoc Bakal.

The Sayoc Kali system emphasizes the correct and effective usage of the
blade. During training a student will learn how to use a single blade,
with progression to the use of multiple blades, in conjunction with
empty-hands training. Sayoc Kali contains the basic teaching formula,
and is primarily concerned with the development of the "Feeder".

Feeder based mentality is best described by answering this oft-asked
question: "How would you defend against a guy with a knife?" Feeder
Based mentality : "I have the Knife".

The Sayoc Silak system is the second part of the training is in the
counter offensive and contains the second learning formula. This
training revolves around the "Receiver", and is started with the empty hands.

The Sayoc Bakal system is the third aspect taught. It is comprised
around the use of projectiles in combat. It works as a complete system
and compliments and enhances both Sayoc Kali and Sayoc Silak.

Included in these 3 categories of training are: proper handling or blade
edge discipline, blade deployment, vital target discrimination, defense
against and the practice of disarms, projectiles and finger-touch
methodology used in conjunction with knife work, critical injury
management, teaching methodologies, non linear templates, 2 dominant
weapon usage, environmental tactics, power assisted movements, and a
system for team work for multiple man situations.

major players : Rafael Kayanan, Ricardo Kayanan, Tom Kier.

Serrada Escrima (Cabales Serrada Escrima)
Angel Ovalles Cabales (1917-1991)

Angel Cabales is commonly known as the "Father of Escrima in the US" as
he was the first to openly teach FMA in the States.

Serrada translates to either "to close" or "close quarters". The style is
noted for using a shorter cane, male triangle footwork, and quick, linear,
inclose fighting. This blade and stick style translates well into empty
hand applications.

major players : Dentoy Revillar, Al Concepcion, Mike Inay (1944-2000), Jimmy Tacosa,
Vincent Cabales, John Cabales, Jaime Cabrera, Charles Cadell III, Ron Saturno,
Stanley Wells, Wade Williams, Frank Rillamas, Gabriel Asuncion, Kimball Joyce

Dentoy Revillar

SLD stands for and is based on Serrada, Largo Mano, and De Cuerdas, Revillar
learned Serrada from Angel Cabales, De Cuerdas from Gilbert Tenio, and Largo

major players : Dextor Labanog, Bob Antuna

Sudlud Eskrima
Ray Terry (1951-)

Sudlud Eskrima (and the Sudlud Eskrima Association, SEA) is an amazing
style of FMA, founded in 2002. "The Sudlud", a mythical human
character, played a pivotal role in rank progression within the
Inayan System of Eskrima.

Sudlud Eskrima is heavily based on Inayan Eskrima and the teaching
and interests of the late Mangisursuro Michael G. Inay. Sudlud
Eskrima also contains significant influences from Grandmaster
Ciriaco "Cacoy" Canete's Doce Pares Eskrima as well as his systems
of Eskrido and Pangamot. This firm FMA footing in addition to the
founder's 40 years of martial arts teaching and training experience
forms the excellence of technique and execution that is Sudlud Eskrima.

Students in the SEA strive to earn the unique title of "Inayador".
The Inayador (Inayan Eskrimador) is honorable, possesses a warrior
spirit and has mastered the basics of the SEA curriculum. The Inayador
has attained a 1st degree black belt in Sudlud Eskrima. Sudlud Eskrima
uniquely uses only a five degree [1 thru 5] black belt ranking system.

major players : Bill Evans, Jim Bruce, Michael Mason, James Bush, Jorge Medina,
Andrzej Sobczak, Henryk Duda, Jeff Landry

Romeo Mamar, Sr. (19??-2005)

A long cane (50") style with 3 angles of attack and in which the cane
is wielded with either one or both hands. It stresses footwork and
delivery of very powerful blows.

major players : Al Concepcion, Ron Harris, Benefrido "Bebing" Lubrido, Mike Vasquez

Toledo-Collado Escrima
Pasqual Ovales

Florendo "Vee" Visitacion (1910-1999)

An eclectic fighting system combining hard and soft styles. Major
components are JuJitsu, Judo, Arnis Lanada, Muay Thai, Kuntaw,
Kung-Fu, Karate and Aikido.

Vee Jitsu is the foundation of the art, incorporating the joint locks,
breaks, throws, and ground movements of Judo/JuJitsu with the brutal,
no-holds-barred approach of traditional street fighting. Techniques
such as groin kicks, biting and eye gouging are readily employed during
fight situations.

Professor Vee also devised a series of fifteen two-person short forms
dubbed "Vee-Jitsu-Te's". These enable the student to respond effectively
to a variety of attack scenarios using a series of sequential defensive
moves. In order to additionally prepare for the realities of street
confrontations, students are drilled rigorously in class and paired
with persons of different shapes and sizes. That way an individual
can experiment with various techniques to determine whether they work
effectively against larger or smaller opponents within a given situation.

The weapons and empty-hand martial art of Arnis makes up the second
major component of Vee-Arnis-Jitsu. Many of the Vee-Arnis-Jitsu
techniques such as the fifteen dimensions and the patterns-of-twelve
drills are derived from Arnis. Students practice these techniques
using a variety of different stepping variations. The more important
ones include PaKua circular footwork, forward and backward motion
and the V-stepping pattern. A number of training exercises including
Sinawali drills are also incorporated. Knife-fighting is another major
part of weapons training.

major players : David James, Frank Edwards, Sr., Frank Edwards, Jr.,
Mohammed Talib

Villabrille System
Floro Villabrille (1912-1992)

Villabrille learned Kali/Eskrima (along with his friend, F.Dizon) from Princess
Josefina, 'the Blind Princess', of the Pulahane tribe of Gandara, Samar.

This style is now headed by Ben T. Largusa and is now termed the
Largusa-Villabrille System of Kali. However, Ben is now retired and
living in Nevada.

major players : Lindsey Largusa, Mel Lopez, Greg Lontayao, Allan Magdangal,
Mario Magdangal, Ron Hellman, Mark Harrell

Visayan Style
Sonny Umpad

This system is comprised of elements from Moro-Moro, Doce Pares,
Balintawak, Villabrille Kali, Serrada and also Wing Chun kung fu. Moro-Moro
footwork is combined with concepts from the various Cebu-based Visayan arts.
Live doblecada (double sticks) incorporates Wing Chun's centerline punching
principles into sinawali. Knife work and Sikaran foot fighting are also
heavily emphasized by this Alameda, CA instructor.

major players : Gary Cagaanan, Sonny Bautista

Warriors Eskrima
Abner G. Pasa

The Warriors system is a composite of the various styles and systems
studied by Abner Pasa. The main system being that of the Largo Mano
System, Excalibur System, Pangamot System, Espada y Daga System,
Sikaran, Balintawak System and a host of other styles. The development
of very high skills in fighting can not be the only goal in Eskrima.
Admittedly, survival was a strong determination in the study of the art
in ancient times. However, practical realities today demands that the
ultimate goal of the art must shift from merely surviving to that of
living. The development of ones potential for his betterment, redounding
to the benefit of his community. This direction has greatly influenced
the development of the system.

Only a select few are allowed to study and practice the real art. The
main goal in the past was to preserve the art. The training syllabus has
been kept simple. Lessons on individual techniques were called Basic
Training. Emphasis at this level is on the understanding of the proper
and effective execution of the individual techniques taught.
Combinations and complications arising from the practical applications
of a technique is de-emphasised. Once a student has developed the
ability to execute the techniques properly he is allowed to move into
the Advanced Training format. Advanced training involves the development
of a students personal fighting system. The effective applications of the
techniques are now emphasised. Mastery of this level leads to a
certificate as an instructor.

major players : Vicente "Inting" Carin (?-2005), Krishna Godhania

Napoleon (Nap) A. Fernandez

Founded in 1972, Yaw-Yan's movements slightly resemble that of
Thai-Boxing and Korea's Taekwondo but the origin is Filipino. The word
Yaw-Yan was derived from the two last syllables of "Sayaw ng Kamatayan"
meaning "Dance of Death".

Contrary to most popular belief, Yaw-Yan is not purely a full-contact
no-holds barred sport martial arts. It is a complete martial training
with body-mind coordination and test of enduring indomitable spirit.
More than just physical training, it also involves the mental
disciplines of focus, concentration, alertness, flexibility, stamina,
speed and continuity. Students train for real confrontation and actual
fights -- on or off the ring. Advanced Disciples have to go through a
rigorous ritual of practice and discipline consisting of actual
full-contact sparring, bag hitting, and flexibility exercises. The
Elbows (siko), knees (tuhod) and shin (lulod) are utilized in much the
same way as in Muay Thai. Yaw-Yan practitioners learn 40 basic kicks,
advanced disciples have to be able to execute and apply complexed
advanced kicks requiring great dexterity, flexibility and mastery. Most
of these advanced kicks are trick kicks which always caught unsuspecting
opponents by surprise.

Yaw-Yan Back-kick, reversed Yaw-Yan roundhouse stomp thrust and the
famous scorpion kicks were some of these kicks popularized in Filipino
motion pictures by action stars Boy Fernandez and Rey Malonzo, both
Yaw-Yan experts. Yaw-Yan practitioners are also adept with Philippine
bladed weaponries as balisong and bolo. Bladed weapons are mere
extensions of the hands. The forearm strikes, elbows, punches,
dominating palms, and hand movements are empty-hand translations of the
bladed weapons. There are 12 bolo punches which were patterned from
Arnis, the Philippines' very own armed art. These punches have continous
fluid striking motion quite similar to western boxing but incorporating
the art of Arnis. Grappling, ground-fighting, and knife-fighting had
always been a part of the philippines' martial art and are always
incorporated during the Yaw-Yan practice period. Yaw-Yan is a
transformation of ancient Filipino Martial Arts and a Modern Competition
Sport with high emphasis on practicality and actual confrontation.

The mountain-storm kick had been debatable as who originated it, where
and when. Mountain Storm kick seemed similar to Thai roundhouse kick
except that the kicking leg was drawn up and swung-through in full force
swiftly with a continous downward cutting motion of the shin as you
torque your hips in, instead of just plain straight through burst.



And many other styles/systems...


Further Reading ( not complete )

"The Filipino Martial Arts"
by Dan Inosanto

"Encyclopedia of Martial Arts"
by Emil Farkas and John Coocaran

"Filipino Stick Fighting - Modern Arnis"
by Remy Presas

"Practical art of Eskrima"
by Remy Presas
Modern Arnis Publications, Manila Philippines, No ISBN

"Arnis: Presas Style and Balisong"
by Ernesto Presas

"Masters of Arnis Kali & Eskrima"
by Edgar G. Sulite

"Eskrima, Kali, Arnis"
by Dionisio Canete

"Arnis Lanada"
by Mat Marinas
Unique Publications, ISBN 0-86568-060-4

"Pananandata Knife Fighting"
by Mat Marinas
Paladin Press, ISBN 0-87364-399-2

"Pananandata: Dalawang Yantok"
by Mat Marinas
Socorro Publications, Manila, Philippines. No ISBN

"Pananandata Yontok At Daga"
1992 Paladin Press.
by Amante P. Marinas Sr.

"Pananandata Rope Fighting: Filipino Choking & Binding Techniques"
1989 Paladin Press.
by Amante P. Marinas Sr.
Trade Paper ISBN 0-87364-494-8 128p. (OP)
Trade Paper ISBN 0-685-51069-7 128p. (OP)

"Secrets of Arnis"
by Edgar G. Sulite

"Arnis: Filipino Art of Self Defense"
by Benjamin Lema
Integrated Publishing House, Pasig, Metro Manila, Philippines.
ISBN 971-8637-32-X

"Doce Pares: Basic Eskrima, Arnis, Kali, Pangolisi"
by Ciriaco C. Canete,
Doce Pares Publishing House, Inc, Cebu City, Philippines, 1989.

"Kuntaw: The Ancient Filipino Art of Hand and Foot Fighting"
by Steven K. Dowd
Koinonia Publications, 1978
No ISBN given

"Balisong: The Lethal Art of Filipino Knife Fighting"
by Sid Campbell, Gary Cagaanan, Sonny Umpad
Paladin Press, 1986
ISBN 0-87364-354-2

"The Kris: Mystic Weapon of the Malay World"
by Edward Frey
Oxford University Press, 1991
ISBN 0-19-588906-1

"The Balisong Manual" and "The Advanced Balisong Manual"
by Jeff Imada
Know Now Publishing, 1984 / 1986
ISBN 0-938676-4-0 / 0-938676-07-5

"Filipino Martial Arts - Cabales Serrada Escrima"
by Mark V. Wiley

"Filipino Martial Culture"
by Mark V. Wiley


HardHat area. These titles are not confirmed.

(x) indicates how many tapes in set.

"Inayan System of Eskrima" (8)
By Suro Mike Inay

"Modern Arnis" (6)
By Remy Presas

"Modern Arnis" (6)
By Dieter Knuettel

"Realistic selfdefense with everyday objects" (2)
By Dieter Knuettel

"Balisong" (2)
By Dieter Knuettel

"Arnis: Presas Style" (1)
By Ernesto Presas

"Rapid Arnis" (2)
By John Harvey and Pat O`Malley

"Kali Sikaran" (2)
By Jeff Espinous

"Lameco Escrima" (8)
By Edgar Sulite

"The Filipino Martial Arts" (6)
By Dan Inosanto

"Filipino Stick Fighting" "Filipino Fighting" (2)
By Paul Vunak

"Sticks of Death: An interview with Grandmaster Angel Cabales"
By Anthony Davis

"Dumog" (1)
By Paul Vunak

"Panajakman" (1)
By Paul Vunak

"Advanced Knife Fighting" (1)
By Paul Vunak

"Kali / Jeet Kune Do" (4)
By Ted Lucaylucay

"Balintawok Eskrima" (6)
By Bobby Taboada

"Pekiti-Tirsia" (5)
By William McGrath

"A Tribute to Legends" (1)
By Antonio Ilustrisimo

"Action in Manila" (1)
By Inoy Baiza, Vicente Sanchez, Elmer Ybanez

"Warriors of Negros" (1)
By Nene Tortal, Hortencio Novales, Dominador Ferrer, Rene Cornel

"Kalis Ilustrisimo" (3)
By Mandirigma Productions, now out of business.

"Doce Pares" (4)
By Danny Guba and Percival Pableo

"Introduction to The Doce Pares System"
By Dionisio Canete

"Espada Y Daga System of Doce Pares"
By Dionisio Canete

"The Balisong: Filipino Knife of Self-Defense" (3)
By Scott Brennan & David Miller

"Lightning Scientific Arnis"
By Elmer Ybanez

"flow of Filipino Kali Hands" (3)
By Steve Grody

"Dog Brothers" (6)
By Eric Knaus

"Kali Pangasinan"
By Reyes

"Kali Silat SinaTirsiaWali" (3)
By Greg Alland

"Advanced Kali Knife Drills" (2)
By Greg Alland

"Lotosa Escrima" (6)
By Rene Latosa

"Eskrima" (3)
By Advincula

"Jeet Kune Do and Kali" (7)
By Bob Breen

APPENDIX C - Eskrima Info via the Internet

The FMA E-mail Distribution List

Do you practice Eskrima, Escrima, Kali, Arnis, Dumog or some other
Filipino martial art? Then join the Filipino martial arts e-mail forum,
the premier internet discussion forum devoted to the FMAs.

The Eskrima list is a ~2500 member e-mail distribution forum for the
respectful discussion of the Filipino martial arts, for those wheresoever
dispersed around the globe. 15+ years of continuous operation.

The list is managed by "Mailman". To subscribe to the Eskrima list go to:


Brought to you by http://MartialArtsResource.com and California Eskrima

Mabuhay ang eskrima!

Eskrima info on the web (please notify me if broken links are found)

URLs come and go. Please inform the author if these fail for you.

Martial Arts Resource


Vancouver Kali/Silat Assoc

Kun Lun Pai Kuntao Silat de Thouars

Portland Academy of Martial arts



Filipino Eskrima/Arnis Assoc.

Inayan Eskrima


Defensor Method http://www.kalieskrima.com
Vorticity Martial Arts


Sothern California Eskrima Academy

Minnesota Martial Arts Academy

American Modern Arnis Assoc

International Eskrima Serrada Association


Danish Arnis Assoc.

Pekiti-Tirsia info

Pekiti-Tirsia International

Pentjak Silat Bukti Negara


Progressive Fighting Systems
Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, Jeet Kune Do Concepts, Filipino Kali

Filipino/Indonesian Martial arts Resource Page

Serrada Eskrima - Germany

Black Eagle Eskrima Arnis

APPENDIX D - Interview with Guro Cass Magda

The material was given to me by the interviewee and asked that I post it to
the newsgroup. This article is found in the World Kulintang Institute (WKI)
NEWSLETTER Issue 1, Volume 1.

Danny Alvendia

An Interview with Guro Cass Magda
by Victor del Rosario

Halfway through a Kulintang performance one late afternoon,
a lone man, 6-foot tall wearing a kopia and malong, approached the
micro phone at centerstage, in front of fifteen hundred people at
a high school auditorium in Los Angeles. "We will now demonstrate
various Martial Arts of the Philippines, which is relatively unknown
in this country. There are over 200 different styles. And, it is a
rather esoteric art."
"We've trained under several (what we call) first generation
Filipinos; many of whom are now deceased or in their late 70's and
"Filipino martial arts was one of the martial arts in America.
As early as the late 1600s, the Spanish Galleon gold route came
from the Philippines. At that time, a lot of Filipinos jumped ship
in Mexico and Louisiana. You'll find things like the "shrimp dance"
in Louisiana today; which is a cultural reminder of the Filipinos
landing there in the early 1700s. But, it is the last martial art
to surface in the U.S., because the Filipino people felt at that
time that,because of the natoure of this art - which involves
sophisticated weaponry, and used only for self-defense - that it should
be kept within the Filipino community. Since then, we've been very
lucky that it has recently surfaced in the early 70's."
"Today you'll see arts from the Northern, Central, and the
Southern Philippines. These arts can look as different as night and
The audience was riveted. As the demonstration unfolded, the
mesmerizing resonance of Kulintang music and the graceful, yet deadly
Martial Arts of the Philippines interlocked just as the "players",
either holding instruments or weapons, interchangeably moved in and
out of each others' rhythmic presence by way of sound or action.
Together, these rare and ancient traditions passed down through
generations now being performed, electrified an astounding presence
that offered a kind of "living snapshot" of the cultural depth deeply
rooted, yet largely unknown in the western world.
The man who spoke earlier was Cass Magda, the guro (teacher)
of the Magda Institute of Martial Arts in Reseda, California. His
school's objectives are: 1) to preserve, incorporate and promulgate
the true historical, cultural, and philosophical Filipino-Indonesian-
Malaysian martial art combative forms and techniques; 2) to research
and preserve significant teachings of these indigenous art forms; 3)
to develop committed, devoted individuals capable of transmitting
these various Martial Art systems; 4) to raise the consciousness of
the Martial Arts community and the general public about these various
martial arts, since they are relatively unknown.

Let's now meet Guro Cass Magda in this interview:

Q: Why do you perform with WKI?

GC: The reason I enjoy performing with WKI is that we have the
opportunity to show the martial arts in its cultural context. In ancient
times, it was always practiced to music. The effect on the audience can be
quite dramatic. Although it is hypnotic like Balinese dancing, you begin to
realize that this is not dancing, but real combative, functional techniques,
elegant but extremely dangerous (laughs) ... it just looks beautiful.
You see, the moves are deceptively subtle. This is a highly evolved
system of self-defense that has a graceful dance-like quality to it.

Q: I noticed you used the Malong(long length of cloth) to demonstrate
with ... is this common?

GC: Yes, everything can be used as a weapon, even articles of clothing
The headdress, the Malong, the belt, the shoe, everyday objects such as pens,
umbrella, books, drinking containers, keys ... everything. Many people think
that it's only the exotic weapons that are used. No ... it's everyday objects.
You see, demonstrations should educate while they entertain. If it's
just entertainment, then it reaches someone only on one level. If you educate
your audience, even just a little bit, they can appreciate what you're doing
and begin to really see what's happening. Light bulbs are being turned on.
It's important that people realize that the art is not a dead, static museum
artifact from the past, but a potent, alive art form that is useful and rele-
vant today.

Q: To people not familiar with Filipino Martial Arts and there are a lot
of different styles, how would you begin to explain what it is?

GC: It is a weapon-based system that evolved uniquely because of the
resistance to the Spanish occupation of the Philippines fro nearly 400 years.
The weaponry share similarities found throughout all of Southeast Asia,
especially with Indonesia and Malaysia, but evolved differently.

Originally the art embodied a balance of both weapons and empty hand
fighting systems. Later it became known as a strictly weapons system. In some
styles, the empty hands were lost over time. Elements of Spanish swordsmanship
were absorbed and modified to fit their needs for effective countering attacks
and us and used reciprocally against the Spanish and European invaders. Today,
you can see some styles retained certain idiosyncrasies of movement that have
made them classic.

Accordingly, the Filipino martial arts shaped itself into its own
original uniqueness which grew in notoriety amongst its feared opponents. It
depends on positioning, speed, and fluidity rather than strength.

It distinguished itself from certain characteristics found in the Indonesian
and Malaysian styles, although sprung from the same Malay combative roots. For
example, I have looked at the weapon systems in Indonesia. They are not the
not the same. They don't have numbering systems. They don't have a curriculum
to learn the weapon. They derive their weapons use from the empty hand
movements. But in Kali, they have a curriculum to learn the weapon - you learn
the numbering system, then you learn the defenses against each number, then you
learn to counter against the defenses. These are common basics that most
Filipino systems possess.

Further, some systems have more evolved components such as counter-
for-counter, practice methods so the practitioners don't get hurt. Some systems
have close quarter with the weapon and some others have grappling with the

Ancient Kali, defined as before the coming of Magellan, existed in
12 categories of instruction. The list comprise of:
1. Single Olisi (Single stick, sword, axe)
2. Double Olisi
3. Olisi-baraw (long and short sticks, sword, and dagger)
4. Baraw-baraw (dbl short sticks, daggers)
5. Baraw-kamot (Dagger and empty hands)
6. Kamot-kamot or pangamut (Empty Hands)
7. Panuntukan (Filipino Boxing, including the use of elbows)
8. Panadiakan/Sikaran (kicking, kneeing, use of the shin)
Dumog/Layug (grappling/wrestling)
9. Olisi dalawang kamot (2 handed stick style)
10. Sibat/bangkaw (spear/staff)
11. Tapon-tapon (Projectiles, darts)
12. Lipad-lipad (Blowguns, bow and arrow)

Today, most people see Filipino martial arts as stickfighting only,
even in the Philippines where the common name for it is "Arnis". The empty
hand portion and other categories are missing. This is what is practiced in
the public school systems. However, a few of my teachers stressed that the
Filipino MA is a complete system with a conceptual base that interrelates
all the principles from one category to the rest.

Q: Why do you thin that's the case; didn't they stay long enough to
learn the rest?

GC: If I need to train someone to fight in 6 months then I won't waste
time with empty hands. It's going to be a weapon. If you have to walk from
one village to the other and you walk with a bolo on your side, then that's
what you should be training first, not empty hands.

So. by expediency, you had to learn the weapon first. That meant your
life. And once you've gained skill with the weapon, then to learn the emptyhand
was unimportant. So that aspect of it eventually watered away. Only the stuff
that was really useful would remain.

And it takes a lot longer, too, to learn the empty hand curriculum-
5 years. You can't make a good fighter in empty hands in just one year.
It takes time, because there is a lot to it. But in Kali, you can make a good
fighter with weapons in 6 months. In fact, in just 3 months, if he's training
everyday, he can already be pretty formidable in self-defense, because he has
the weapon. That's what happens.

There's a lot of styles in the Filipino MA. As an "outsider" it
all looks the same. Then, as an "insider" it all looks different. Further,
when you reach a certain level as an "insider" they all start to look the same
again. (laughs)

Q: One thing that amazes me is that even though you've been on tour
with Dan Inosanto and been training with him for years, then trained with
other styles and teachers, you still seek out other people to train and learn
under. Why?

GC: You know what? ... you should never leave a rock unturned. You
should lift every rock to look what's under it.

There's always something you can learn. If you learn 10 different
systems, there will be a lot of repetition. Many of them will have
similarities, but then there might be one thing, or two that the guy has that
might be pretty good. Or, he might talk about something you already know in a
different way. So it just all adds.

I'm a researcher, which is why I'm interested in all these aspects.
I have, long ago, developed the ability to fight. If I were just interested
in fighting I would have been satisfied, and not attempted to research further.

You can never know it all. Everyone has something to offer, some
more than others. But you'll never get anywhere when you consider yourself a
master and think that you have it.

Q: In 1986, you were quoted in an article by Black Belt that "knife
fighting in Kali-Eskrima is more highly developed than in almost any
other martial arts". Do you still feel the same way now?

GC: Yes. I feel the same, even more so today. Even studying Pentjak
Silat, which I think is a very sophisticated empty hand system, blade
fighting in the Philippines or just weaponry period, is the most highly
evolved as far as being practical. In this, I'm referring to "really"
being able to fight not dance around and wave your weapon around. Other
martial arts have forms that look pretty but the Filipino MA have the
understanding of how the weapon structure of combat really works. Once the
principles of this structure are understood then anything can fit into the
structure. Blade fighting is very sophisticated in the Philippines. Kali
people who have this knowledge are very respected.
You see the Philippines was a blade culture. In ancient times every-
one carried a blade, by the time you were 14 years old you could be wearing
a sword. It meant that you were now respected as an adult in the society.
You were capable or preserving or taking a life. You had a great
responsibility as a preserver and protector of the society. You became the
servant of the people of your tribe. The carrying of the blade does not
have the a negative association attached to it as it does here in the West.

END of Interview.

APPENDIX E - FMA Equipment/Weapon Suppliers

Ready Made Sticks:


Raw Rattan:




Grip Strengtheners:


Masks & Armor:


Self Defense Products:


Knives & Related Products:


Training Knives:


Herbal Liniments(Dit Da Jow and Balur Oil):


Information Websites:


Videos, Books, Magazines:


APPENDIX F - Information about the Sudlud Training Organization (STO)

The STO is made up of the schools, the heads of the schools, and individual
students within those schools, that train from Sudlud instructors by either
intensive seminars or private on-going curriculum. Normal scheduled training
is held between one to four times a week by a qualified Sudlud Eskrima
instructor trained and ranked directly by a Sudlud Eskrima senior instructor.
Current STO training locations are located throughout the United States.

For further information on how you may take advantage of the available
seminars and programs offered by the Sudlud Training Organization please
contact Sudlud.Eskrima.Association -at- gmail.com.

APPENDIX G - Some FMA (Filipino) vocabulary

fighting stance labang patayo
cat stance tayong pusa
horse stance tayong kabayo
front kick sipa sa unahan
side kick sipa sa tabi
back kick sipa sa likod
upper punch pataas na suntok
middle punch suntok sa gitna
lower punch pababang suntok
upper block harang na pataas
grab & chop tagga na kamay
run & roll takbo at gulong
self defense pansariling supporta
retreat atras
advance avante
hook kawit
turn or spin ikot
ready handa
slice hiwa
strike hampas
full power strike hambalos
stab saksak
umbrella movement payong
fan strike abaniko
snapping backfist/
backhand strike witik
beggar's hand pangayo
fight(er) (ing) laban
bandit tulison
roof bubong
wall dingding
floor sahig

short stick maigsi na kahoy
pocket stick (kubotan) tabak maliit
long stick mahabang kahoy
small knife maliit na kutsilio
large knife malaking itak
sword espada
ice pick pantusok nang yelo
bottle bottilya

groin bayag
heart dibdib
throat/neck leeg
face mukha
head ulo
elbow siko
knee tuhod
stomach tiyan

one isa
two dalawa
three tatlo
four apat
five lima
six anim
seven pito
eight walo
nine siyam
ten sampu

APPENDIX H - Locating FMA instructors, schools, and organizations

Mike Seilnacht began assembling an impressive list of FMA instructors, schools,
and organizations. To view the current version of this list go to:


This list was assembled from a variety of individuals and sources and appearance on
this list does not reflect an endorsement. Your mileage with any individual
instructor, school or organization may vary.

Don't see your school listed? Fill out the form at:


APPENDIX I - List of those contributing to this FAQ

Danny Alvendia - for submitting the interview with Cass Magda, in appendix D
Mike Berry - for help on specific styles.
Marlo Brown - for submitting the FMA vocabulary in appendix G.
Bill Cox - for authoring the first version of this FAQ.
Mike Inay - for submitting the story on how FMA was first openly taught in the USA and for relating
other material present throughout this FAQ. We miss you, Suro...
Reynaldo Galang - for submitting the section on the live hand.
Steven Lefebvre - for submitting the section on Sayoc Kali.
Mark Lynn - for submitting the section on Kombatan Arnis.
Andy Maddox - for submitting information on Lameco Eskrima.
Mike Seilnacht - for creating the first list of FMA instructors, mentioned in appendix H.
Kelvin Williams - for submitting a lengthy list of related URLs.
Jay Swan - for submitting a lengthy list of related URLs.
Bob Torres - for submitting information on KunTao Silat.

(sorry if I left anyone out)

Copyright 1996-2017: Ray Terry and the Martial Arts Resource.
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