Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Korean Martial Arts (KMA)

Version: 1.4y              Date: 2 Apr 2017
Brought to you by the Martial Arts Resource
(http://MartialArtsResource.com) and California Taekwondo and Hapkido
Ray Terry, P.O. Box 110841, Campbell, CA  95011-0841
MartialArtsResource -at- gmail -dot- com
This FAQ was created to be informative.  There are no
intentions for it to be offensive to any style or person.
This FAQ is a compilation of information acquired over the years from
various sources, but it is FAR from complete. Any corrections or additions
that are submitted will be carefully considered. Send them to address
MartialArtsResource -at- gmail -dot- com
and include "KMA FAQ INFO" as the subject heading.

* =====================================
* =====================================
* 1 - Introduction
* 2 - What is a martial art?
* 3 - How do I choose a school?
* 4 - Should children study martial arts?
* 5 - Belief systems
* 6 - Rankings/Color belt systems
* 7 - Korean martial arts glossary
* 8 - Bibliography
* 9 - Sources of electronic information
* 10 - Sources of equipment and material
* 11 - Different Korean arts and styles
* 12 - TaeKwonDo Olympic sparring rules
* 13 - Brief History of Korea
* 14 - Korean Martial Arts Organizations
* 15 - The people that made this FAQ possible
* =====================================

* 1.0 Introduction
This FAQ is not intended to be a martial arts bible, but to give some
help to those that are looking for a place to start, or those more
experienced that would like to know more about some different style,
have a particular doubt, etc.
Please note that this is not the "Absolute Truth" but rather an
attempt to give clear and basic information about Korean martial arts.
Your suggestions, opinions, and additions are welcome; send e-mail per
the above instructions.
* 2.0 What is a martial art?
A martial art can be defined as a system of techniques, physical and mental
exercises developed as an effective means for self-defense and offense,
both unarmed and with the use of weapons.
The origin and history of martial arts is a controversial issue.  We can see
signs of martial arts in Greece, Egypt, Korea, Africa, Japan, China, Okinawa,
Thailand, as well as other cultures.  There is a clear trail leading from the
Southern China regions up to Korea, Okinawa and Japan.  The details before
that, and the exact details of that transfer, are greatly debated by
historians and martial artists.

* 3.0 How do I choose a school?
A couple of things that are important parts to look at in the process of
choosing a school:
   (1)  The environment where you'll learn and train
   (2)  The people that will be your partners
   (3)  The instructor
   (4)  The logistics of the school
(1)     The environment where you will learn and train
Don't get impressed by the size of the place- just be sure that you feel
"ok" in there.
Also don't necessarily be impressed by huge number of trophies.  They may
indicate a very successful competitive school (if that is an aspect you are
interested in) or they could be all show.  Check carefully.
If you are not allowed to watch any classes, you may not want to invest
your time and money.  Without seeing a class you will not be able to get a
good feel for the school.
Ask questions- don't worry about looking stupid or asking the "wrong"
question.  They are going to be teaching and training you- you want to get
any concerns or considerations you have out before you commit to anything.
If you feel bullied or threatened in any manner, look somewhere else.
(2)     The people that will be your partners
Watch some classes (without participating), then ask to participate-
see if the behavior of the students changes by the fact that there is a new
person in their class.
What follows is a quick and dirty check list, to which you can add your own
points, based on what you consider important.  Remember: these questions
and suggestions are just guidelines, not hard and fast rules. There will
always be exceptions.
   - How good are the students?
This is more of a measure of the quality of the students as students than
their skill at martial arts.  See if you can picture yourself with these
people.  Are they attentive, respectful, interested in being there? Those
are all good signs...
   - Is there a mix of upper and lower ranks?
This is not always obvious in the styles without belt rankings, etc. It is
generally a good sign if advanced, intermediate and beginning students are
practicing together.  Check the approach the higher ranked students take to
you- their help will probably be very important in your advancement in the
Art you choose.
Some schools have classes separated by rank though.  Ask.
   -Is there a mix in the type of people in the class?
Although this doesn't necessarily mean anything if it is not present, it is
a good sign if there is a mixture of males and females, older and younger
people in the class.   It is a pointer to the efficiency of the Art if it
can teach a wide variety of people together.
   - Do they move the way you would like to?
This will give you some sense of what you can achieve.  Look to the senior
students and see if they move the way you want to move.
   - Do they help one another?
In a small class this may not apply, but in larger classes it is a good
sign if the senior students support and assist the junior students. This
kind of personal attention will aid you greatly in your training.
   - Do the senior students seem fit and relaxed?
This will give you a sense of the atmosphere of the school.  If the senior
students are uptight, nervous, unfit, out of shape, or unhappy, it may be a
sign to move on.  However, do not be put off by a single occurrence, i.e.
because on THAT day the senior student was in a poor mood.  It should at
least prompt you to look carefully though...
   - How common are injuries?
As most martial arts involve vigorous physical activity and contact,
injuries will occur.  However, if injuries are very common and/or
serious, there is likely a problem in how training is supervised, and you
will probably want to look elsewhere.  It will be difficult to tell what
the frequency/severity of injuries in the class is in one or two visits.
Ask the instructor.
(3)     The Instructor
        -You'll need some basic trust in the individual, as a beginning.
The instructor is the person who is going to be guiding your development as
a martial artist.   You need to feel comfortable with him or her, and feel
secure in receiving instruction from them. If you have some unease or
personality conflict with the instructor(s) you might want to look
   - Do the students get personalized attention?
This will be a good judge of how valuable your time will be.  If there is a
good amount of instructor to student attention there will be more value for you.
   - Does the instructor differentiate between forms and function?
Another good indication is to find out if the instructor(s) differentiates 
between form and function.  In other words do they do it "because it looks
good" or "because it works."  This may not apply if you are looking for a
martial art as a performance art or as an exercise (though then you want to
look at the efficacy of their exercises...)
   - Does the instructor(s) differentiate between tournament and self-defense?
As above, your reaction to this question's answer will depend on what your
goals are.  However, there is general agreement that tournament training
and self-defense training, while highly related, are different. If the
instructor does not differentiate the two- that may be a danger sign!
   - Are adjustments made for students of differing body types and
Another good sign is if the instructor adjusts the training of his or her
student's physical realities:  telling a slow person to work contact, a
fast person to work ranges, a heavy person to work leverage, a light person
to work speed, or, conversely, concentrating on their weak areas to
(4)     The logistics of the School
This is an important element to be clear about.  You don't want to commit
to a school if you can't afford it.  It is impossible to address what a
reasonable price would be here, because the benefits offered, the local
economy, the quality of instruction, and the amount of instructor time are
all variables in the equation.
Find out if there are extra charges for going up in rank, find out if there
are organizational dues, tournament fees, mat fees, etc.
But do not be upset when a martial arts instructor charges money- they need
to eat and have a place to stay.
If you are intending to spend a lot of time at the school you want it to be
accessible, and convenient enough for you to get their after work, on weekends, etc.
Another thing you want to be clear on is when you can go to the school and
when classes are.  Some schools are open almost all the time and have lots
of classes.  In some schools you can only come when an official class is
being held. An open school is usually better for obvious reasons- convenience,
practice time, access to mats, etc.
   -Commitments and Promises
This is an important thing to know about any school you will be joining. Be
very clear on what they will expect of you and what you expect of them.
Some teachers want to teach only people who are willing to commit to them
and their style, some are willing to introduce you to their style and let
you dabble, some will teach you as long as you show up. None of these are
intrinsically better or worse, but you want to know where they are coming
from so you and they are not surprised.
Find out if you are required to attend classes, find out about being late,
find out what the policy is on school rules of behavior and etiquette.
Find out how you are supposed to interact with the teacher and other
students.  There are many styles for all these things so make sure you find
out.  The easiest way is to ask these questions.
There may be other questions you want to look at and specific questions you
have about an instructor, school, organization, or style you are looking
at. Know the questions you want answered and you will find the perfect
school for you!
* 4.0 Should children study martial arts?

In general, yes.  Some of the possible positives would be control of
aggressiveness, instilling self-respect and self-control, as well as
The style that a child should take is a totally different question, and is
directly influenced by the style, if any, of the parents.  It will of
course be convenient if the child can practice with, or at least in the
same school as, the parents.  The major issue with children in the martial
arts is the integrity and trustworthiness of the teacher and the school.
The joints and connective tissues of children are more vulnerable to injury
than those of adults.  Keep this in mind when selecting a style and school
for a child, and discuss it with the instructor.  Schools which allow
aggressive joint locks to be applied to children or don't train them to
refrain from snapping/hyper-extending elbows on strikes and knees on kicks
should be avoided.  (It is for this same reason that good baseball coaches
will not allow young pitchers to throw pitches which require hard snapping
of the arm - like curve balls).  Throws, however, are quite different; the
small size of children makes them naturals for arts which require falling
* 5.0 Belief systems
Some martial arts have philosophical and/or religious roots or
associations, e.g. with Buddhism, Taoism, or ?.  Thus, it is natural
for people who are considering a particular art to wonder if it is
compatible with their own philosophy or religion.
Normally it is not considered ethical for an Instructor to try to impose
his own views on his students.  However, the philosophical aspects of
some arts may still be present in the required training to the extent
that some potential students would be offended by it.  As with so many
other aspects of martial arts, it depends on the art and even more heavily
on the instructor.  So, be sure to watch for this aspect when you visit
a school that you are interested in.  Have a conversation with the
instructor about it, and watch how he/she interacts with his/her students.
* 6.0 Rankings/Color belt systems

Many arts have a ranking system.  A typical ranking from beginner to
most experienced master is: 10th gup, 9th gup, ..., 2nd gup, 1st gup,
1st dan, 2nd dan, ..., 10th dan.  "gup" (or "kup") is Korean for grade.
"Dan" ranks will typically wear a black belt.
That being said, do not put too much stock in rankings, and put even less
in belt color.  Belt colors are HIGHLY dependent on the art, school, and
instructor.  Some arts don't have any belts.  Some have only white and
black.  Some have white, brown, and black.  Some have a rainbow.  Some
instructors hand out rank/belts like candy, others are very stingy.  A
given color will frequently signify different ranks in different arts.
Rather than rank or belt color, what will determine an individual's skill
are how long and how intensely they have studied, the quality of
instruction they have received, and (to a lesser extent) their "natural" ability.
A brief history of gup/kyu/dan (kyu is the Japanese equivalent of gup)
ranking systems and belts, originally contributed by Steve Gombosi, follows:
Before Jigoro Kano founded Judo, there was no kyu/dan ranking system in the martial arts.
Kano borrowed it from the game of Go when he awarded "shodan" to two of his senior students
(Saito and Tomita) in 1883. Even then, there was no external
differentiation between yudansha (dan ranks) and mudansha (those who hadn't
yet attained dan ranking). Kano apparently began the custom of having his
yudansha wear black obis in 1886. These obis weren't the belts karateka and
judoka wear today - Kano hadn't invented the judogi (uniform) yet, and his
students were still practicing in kimono. They were the wide obi still worn
with formal kimono. In 1907, Kano introduced the modern gi and its modern
obi, but he still only used white and black.
Karateka in Okinawa didn't use any sort of special uniform at all in the
old days. The kyu/dan ranking system, and the modern karategi (modified judogi)
were first adopted by Karate-do founder G.Funakoshi in an effort to encourage
karate's acceptance by the Japanese. He awarded the first "shodan" ranks given
in karate to Tokuda, Otsuka, Akiba, Shimizu, Hirose, Gima, and Kasuya on April
10, 1924. The adoption of the kyu/dan system and the adoption of a standard
uniform based on the judogi were 2 of the 4 conditions which the Dai-Nippon
Butokukai required before recognizing karate as a "real" martial art. If
you look at photographs of Okinawan karateka training in the early part of
this century, you'll see that they were training in their everyday clothes,
or (!) in their underwear.
Most Korean arts have ranking/belt color systems that were adopted from the
Japanese arts.
* 7.0 Korean martial arts glossary
A Summary of Korean Terminology for TaeKwonDo
compiled by Brad Appleton (bradapp@enteract.com)
[with minor edits by Ray Terry]
   This document is an attempt to compile a list of Korean terminology
   used in the study of TaeKwonDo.  In years past, the terminology used
   was based upon Chinese.  Since then however, most styles have "upgraded"
   to use a more "modern" Korean terminology that is more "in sync" with
   the semantics of the Korean language.  Wherever possible, I have tried
   to use this "new" (more modern) terminology.  [older terms appear in
   Obviously, the Korean language is not written using the Roman alphabet,
   so all the spellings you see here are mere approximations and will not
   necessarily be the same spellings that some of you are used to seeing.
   Counting to 10 in Korean
        1    hanah
        2    dool
        3    set
        4    net
        5    dasot
        6    yosot (pronounced more like "yawsot")
        7    ilgop
        8    yodol (sort of like "yawdol")
        9    ahop
        10  yool (or "yeol" or "yol")
   The stress in "hanah", "dasot", and "yosot" is on the first syllable,
   in "ilgop", "yodol", and "ahop" on the second.  In counting cadence in
   TaeKwonDo, this is so emphasized that the other syllable frequently
   almost disappears (e.g., "han", "das", "yos", "lgop", "hop", etc.).
   The Korean names for 1st-10th
   These are not cardinal numbers (first, second, etc.).  They are another
   numbering system.  The numbers hanah, dool, etc. are most frequently
   used when you're talking about something that's counted; il, i, etc.
   for other things (which usually correspond to cardinal numbers). For
   example, a first degree black belt would be an "il dan".
   These numbers are:
        1    il ("eel")
        2    i ("ee")
        3    sam ("sahm")
        4    sa ("sah")
        5    o ("oh")
        6    ryuk ("yook")
        7    chil
        8    pal
        9    ku
       10   ship
   The final 'l' in "chil" and "pal" isn't rounded, like an American 'l' ....
   it's a much shorter sound, sort of like the initial 'l' in "let", but
   even shorter.  It's not like the 'l' in "ball".
   When pronouncing the word "ship", you MUST NOT emphasize the "sh" sound.
   It's almost more like "sip" with a sort of a lisp.  If you pronounce it
   like "sh" in "shell", you will be talking about sexual intercourse.
Other Korean Terminology
        sohgi                 stance
        {cha see              stance}
        anjun sohgi           sitting stance
        ap sohgi              walking stance
        ap kubi               front bent knee stance
        {chungul chasee       frong bent knee stance}
        bom sohgi             cat stance
        chagi sohgi           kicking stance
        dwi kubi              back stance
        {hugul chasee         back stance}
        juchoom sohgi         horse stance
        {keema chasee         horse stance}
        kima sohgi            riding stance
        mot sohgi             fighting stance
        onnoon sohgi          sitting stance
        kibon junbi sohgi     ready stance
        dong yuk sohgi        dynamic stance
        cha yun sohgi         natural stance
        oo                    right
        joa                   left
        ap                    front
        an                    inner
        bakkat                outer
        baro                  reverse
        bitureo               twisting
        dwi                   back
        gamya                 stepping
        uro                   moving in a particular direction
                              (e.g. "ap uro gamya" - stepping forward)
        anuro                 inward
        bakuro                outward
        twim yah              jumping
        dollyo                turning
        dora                  to turn
        dolmyo                spinning
        mee kul myu           sliding
        chagi                 kick (or snap kick)
        cha olligi            stretching kick
        ap chagi              front kick
        bandal chagi          45' roundhouse kick
        pyojuk chagi          crescent kick
        dwi chagi             back kick
        dollyo chagi          roundhouse kick
        bandae dollyo chagi   reverse round kick ("hook kick")
        dwi dollyo chagi      hook kick (back round kick)
        nakko chagi           hooking kick
        naeryo chagi          ax kick
        an chagi              inside ax kick
        bakkat chagi          outside ax kick
        yup chagi             side kick
        bitureo chagi         twisting kick
        mireo chagi           push kick
        twio chagi            jump kick
        {ea dan chagi         jump kick}
        huryo chagi           thrashing kick
   Hand Attacks
        chirugi               punch
        chigi                 strike
        {kongkyuk             attack}
        sonnal                knife-edge
        joomok                fist
        doong joomuk          back fist
        yup joomuk            side fist
        me joomuk             hammer fist
        sanbadak chigi        palmhand strike
        sontong chigi         backhand strike
        sonnal mok chigi      overhead knife-edge strike
        doo bun chirugi       double punch
        sae bun chirugi       triple punch
        kwon su chirugi       spearfinger thrust
        sonkut chirugi        finger thrust
        sewo chirugi          vertical punch
        dollyo chirugi        round punch
        dwijubo chirugi       upset punch
        olliyo chirugi        upward punch
        bandae chirugi        front punch
        baro chirugi          reverse front punch
        makki                 block
        bakkat makki          outer forearm block
        an makki              inner forearm block
        hecho makki           double forearm block
        anuro makki           inward block
        bakuro makki          outward block
        arae makki            low block
        gutjha makki          nine-shaped block
        daebi makki           guarding block
        cho kyo makki         rising block
        olgul makki           high block
        momtong makki         middle block
        sonnal makki          knife-edge block
        wesanteul makki       mountain block
        charrot               attention
        junbi                 ready
        dorah                 about face
        elosoh                stand
        keuman                stop
        gooky a hyanghayoh    face the flag
        hai san               class dismissed
        jonglee               line up
        kyenyae               bow
        anja                  sit
        pah ro                return to ready position
        pal bah kwah          switch your stance (switch sides)
        koo ryung op see      in your own time
        seijak                begin
        shiuh                 relax
   Body Parts
        arae                  lower body (low section)
        {ha dan               lower body}
        bahl                  feet
        dahlee                leg
        eep                   mouth
        palkup                elbow
        gi                    ear
        joomok                fist
        ko                    nose
        mok                   neck
        molee                 head
        momtong               middle body (middle section)
        {choong dan           middle body}
        mooloop               knee
        myung chi             solar plexus
        noon                  eye
        ouka                  shoulder
        pahl                  arm
        palmak                forearm
        sonn                  hand
        olgul                 face & head high
        {san dan              face & head high}
        kyorugi               (free) sparring
        {daeryun              sparring}
        hanbeon kyorugi       one step sparring
        {il sooshik daeryun   one step sparring}
        doobeon kyorugi       two step sparring
        {yi sooshik dayryun   two step sparring}
        sebeon kyorugi        three step sparring
        {sahm sooshik daeruyn three step sparring}
        anja kyorugi          sitting position sparring
        tzalbeun-khal kyorugi knife sparringk
        ban ja yu kyorugi     semi free sparring
        danjang               fix
        dhee                  belt
        dobok                 uniform
        dojang                school (house of discipline)
        gup                   grade
        dan                   degree
        jang                  a page (similar to a page)
        joncha                every one
        kihap                 yell
        kahm sa ham nee da    thank you
        jer maenyo            (you're) welcome
        mukyum                meditation
        onyonghe asayo        hello
        onyonghe gasayo       goodbye
        pil sung              certain victory
        poomsae               form (pronounced "poom-say")
        hyung                 form
        sah bum nim           master (or senior instructor)
        jung sin yuk          mental strength (martial art spirit)
        yung suk              combination
        Tai Geuk Gi           the Korean flag

* 8.0 Bibliography
   The Original Martial Arts Encyclopedia: Tradition, History,
   Pioneers_.  Corcorn/Farkas.  Pro-Action Publishing.
   ISBN Number:  0-9615126-3-6
   Go Rin No Sho---The Book of the Five Rings_.  Miyamoto Musashi
   Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts_.  Draeger & Smith
   Publisher: Kodansha International ISBN Number: 0-87011-436-0
   ISBN Number in Japan: 4-7700-0913-5
   The Art Of War_.  Sun Tzu
  Zen in the Art of Archery_.  Eugen Herrigel
   The Bible of Karate: Bubishi_.  translated with commentary by
   Patrick McCarthy.
   Okinawan Karate_.  Mark Bishop
   The Student's Handbook_.  Frederick Lovret
   Zen in the Martial Arts_.  Joe Hyams
   The Martial Artist's Book of Five Rings_.  Translation by Hanshi

   Steve Kaufman, Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc., 1994.
   Hwarang Do_. 3 volumes, Dr. Joo Bang Lee
   Moo Duk Kwan_. 2 volumes, Richard Chun
   The Fighting Weapons of Korean Martial Arts_.  In Hyuk Suh
   The Hapkido Bible_.  Dr. He-Young Kimm
   Hapkido II_.  Dr. He-Young Kimm
   Han Mu Do_.  Dr. He-Young Kimm
   Hapkido: Korean art of self-defense_.  Bong Soo Han
   Korean Hapkido_.  Kwang Sik Myung
   Hapkido: Korean Art of Self-defense_.  Scott Shaw
   Hapkido: The Integrated Fighting Art_.  Robert Spear
   Tae Kwon Do: Secrets of Korean Karate_.  S.Henry Cho
   Taekwondo Text Book_.  Kukkiwon
   Background Readings in Tae Kwon Do & Martial Arts_.  Daeshik Kim
   History of Moo Duk Kwan_.  Hwang Kee
   Soo Bahk Do Tang Soo Do_. 2 volumes, Hwang Kee
   Taekwon-Do_.  Hong Hi Choi
   A Guide to Korean Characters_. Grant
* 9.0 Sources of electronic information
For those on the World Wide Web, see the URL:
Korean Martial Arts Mailing List:
Do you practice Korean martial arts?  e.g. SinMoo Hapkido, Tang Soo Do,
HwaRang Do, Kuk Sool Won, Taekwondo, TaekKyon, Hapkido, Soo Bahk Do, Kumdo,
Yudo, Ship Pal Ki, Yu Sool, Kong Soo Do, Kung Jung Moo sool, HaeDong Kumdo,
Kyuktooki, Hanmudo, etc.
Come practice with us at the "The_Dojang", 11 years of continuous operation.
The_Dojang is a 2000 member e-mail distribution list for the discussion
of Korean martial arts.
The list is managed by "Mailman".  To subscribe to The_Dojang
go to the URL;
Brought to you by the Martial Arts Resource, MartialArtsResource.com.
Pil Seung!
* 10.0 Sources of equipment and material
Academy of Karate Martial Arts Supplies
405 Black Horse Pike
Haddon Heights, NJ 08035
Asian World of Martial Arts
917-21 Arch St.
Philadelphia, PA  19107
BLT Supply Inc.
35-01 Queens Boulevard
Long Island City, N.Y. 11101-1720
(718) 392-5671 or (800)-322-2860 FAX:(718) 392-5705
Mail Order * Retail * Wholesale
Bugei Trading Company
California S and P Inc.
10545-B San Pablo Ave.; El Cerrito, CA 94530; USA
Century Martial Art Supply, Inc.
1705 National Blvd.; Midwest City, OK 73110; USA
Chris Nickolas American Arts Karate
Martial arts supplies (wholesale/retail)
4858 S. Main St.
Akron, Ohio 44319
Internet: mark.juszczec@bellhow.com
Defense Arts, Inc.
P.O. Box 1028; Smyrna, GA 30081; USA
East West Markets Exchange, Inc.
5533 North Broadway; Chicago, IL 60640; USA
Far East Books
2029 North Park St.
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada  B3K 4B2
902-422-8142  FAX 902-422-1998
Internet fareast@fox.nstn.ca
Chinese Martial Arts, Religions, and Healing Disciplines; catalogue
Honda Martial Arts Supply Co.
120 W. 30th St.; New York, NY 10010; USA
800-USA-NYNY or 212-563-6688
I & I Sports
1524 W. 178th St.
Gardena, CA  90248
Inter Sports
1 Bon Ji. Ulchiro 7-ga
(under the Baseball stadium)
Chung-gu, Seoul, Korean
FAX: 82-2-2237-2238
Kim Pacific Trading Company
4141 Business Center Drive
Kiyota Company
2326 North Charles St.; Baltimore, MD 21219; USA
800-783-2232 or 410-366-8275
Martial Arts Supplies Co., Inc.
10711 Venice Blvd.; Los Angles, CA 90034-6294; USA
Macho Products
10045 102nd Terrace
Sebastian, FL 32978
e-mail macho@bb.iu.net
Moo Sool Sa 
1 Bon Ji. Ulchiro 7-ga
Dongdaemun Football Stadium
Chung-gu, Seoul, Korea
FAX: 82-2-2237-9993
e-mail: moosool@chollian.dacom.co.kr
Musashi Martial Arts
1842 S. Grand Ave.; Santa Ana, CA 92705; USA
PAIS Enterprises
P.O. Box 518, Miliken Post Office; Milliken, Ontario, LOH 1K0, CANADA
S & P of New York Budo, Inc.
P.O. Box 2; Depew, NY 14043; USA
Saghafi Enterprises
1604 Niagara Falls Blvd.; Tonawanda, NY 14150; USA
Sang Moo Sa
16631 Bellflower Blvd.
Bellflower, CA  90706
Top Brands
Box 51331; New Orleans, LA 70151; USA
World-Wide Martial Arts Supply
P.O. Box 3132
Bethlehem, PA  18017
* 11.0 Different Korean arts and styles
Important note:  This information is true to the best of the knowledge
of the author.  Not all will agree with some, perhaps even most, of what
11.1) Cha Yon Ryu
Intro:  An eclectic, fairly new martial art.
The Cha Yon Ryu ("Natural Way") system was founded in 1968 by Kim Soo of
Houston, Texas, who remains Director of the system.  Grand Master Kim, who
holds upper dan rankings in both tae kwon do and hapkido chose to
incorporate into the Cha Yon Ryu system techniques and forms from several
different martial arts.
Tae Kwon Do contributes kicking techniques, strong stances and direct,
linear strikes and blocks, as does Shotokan Karate.  With the study of
movements from Okinawan Te, the Cha Yon Ryu practitioner starts to add
techniques with some angularity to his/her repertoire, and eventually
progresses to the fluid, circular movements of Ch'uan Fa Kung Fu.  Hapkido
is the martial art from which are drawn defenses against chokes, grabs and
armed attacks, as well as various throwing and falling techniques.
The Dojang Hun  (Training Hall Oath)
Seek perfection of character 
Live the way of truth
Be faithful
Respect your seniors
Refrain from violent behavior
11.2) Choson Do - "The Way of the Morning Calm"
Origin: Korea (Choson)
Choson Do was founded as a family based martial art circa 1850 in Pyong An Province, in what is now known as North Korea. It's Founder, a merchant, Buddhist scholar and martial artist named Kim Chong Ji, traveled to China, Japan and The Ryuku Islands (Okinawa), studying the martial arts of these cultures while plying his trade. He founded Choson Do as a system that was destined to become eclectic though essentially deep rooted in the Chinese culture as well as in the Korean culture and history.

There are only five original hyungs. They are called: Choson, Chungmin, Yi Song gye, Um Yang and Hangul. They have been recorded on videotape as a hedge against those who would try to copy and pass them off as the originals, and no new hyungs have been authorized since 1981. Currently they are being transferred to DVD to be given out as courtesy copies. The Choson Do Society frowns upon its members making a profit as this has been one of our strictest tenets since The Choson Do Society was founded in 1918.

Up until 1955 all practitioners of this art wore Chinese style sashes, not belts. The dobok is all white and without fancy trim or statements of rank. Only gup ranks may wear stripes on their belts as an incentive. It is considered poor taste for dan members to display their rank with stripes or wording on their doboks or belts.

The Art and The System are currently headquartered in The United States of America exclusively under the auspices of The Choson Do Society. Headquarters is in Mingo, North Carolina.

The complete lineage of Choson Do is:

Founder: *Kim, Chong-ji (1850)
1st successor: *Kim, Bop-sa
2nd successor: *Kim, Lee Soo - Founder of The Choson Do Society (circa 1918)
3rd successor: *Kim, Jun Dahl
4th successor: *Sun, L.M.
5th successor: Atamian, Michael A., Doju, 1st non-Korean successor (1981)
6th successor: *Didia, Hyman V., Deputy Doju (1991)
"*" = Deceased, thus 10th Dan

The unique characteristics of Choson Do are:

1. There are no lock-out motions in hand or foot strikes.

2. None of the body parts stay in contact with the target for more than a fraction of a second, creating internal shock which could result in internal injuries.

3. Evasion techniques, as well as unpredictability are all integral parts of the practitioner's methods. "Expect The Unexpected" is one of our mottos.

4. All motion is smooth and circular with emphasis on reducing undue stress on joints and muscles.

5. The only weapon in the arsenal is the so-setsu nunchaku.

6. Chi is taught to students starting at the 9th gup level.

7. Only 9 levels of dan rank are recognized as the 10th is awarded posthumously.

11.3) Choson Kwon Bup (formerly Chosondo)
Intro:  Choson Kwon Bup was founded as a Civil Defence Tradition circa 1850 in Pyongyang, North Korea.
Choson Kwon Bup (CKB) was founded as a Civil Defence Tradition (CDT) circa 1850 in Pyongyang, North Korea by a merchant, Buddhist scholar and martial arts enthusiast, Kim Chong Ji. As a merchant, Kim traveled to China, Japan and Okinawa and studied the martial arts of these cultures. He founded Kwon Bup as a family CDT. CKB is a hybrid esentially composed of Taekkyun, Shuai Jiao and Northern White Crane. Ba Gua, Xing Yi and Ryukyu Kempo may have also factored into into CKB's development.

The complete lineage of Choson Kwon Bup is:

Founder: Kim, Chong-ji (1850)
1st successor: Kim, Bop-sa
2nd successor: Kim, Lee Soo - Founder of The Choson Do Society
3rd successor: Kim, Jun Dahl
4th successor: Sun, L.M.
5th successor: Atamian, Michael A., Doju, 1st non-Korean successor
6th successor: Didia, Hyman V., Deputy Doju
7th successor: Cyrus, Ian A., currently Headmaster of The International Korean Martial Arts Federation (formerly International Chosondo Federation/Chosondo Society)
CKB consist of three main aspects. They are:

1. Sin (Spirit): Meditation, Gi Gong
2. Sim (Body): The physical aspects of CKB
3. Shin (Mind): Philosophy, history, theory, medicine, concepts, principles, ettiquette

The three main methods are:

1. Um Bup (Passive Methods): Grappling methods, vital point manipulation, etc
2. Yang Bup (Active methods): Thrusting, Blocking, kicking, evasive methods
3. Ui Yak (Medicine): Oriental Medicine theory, modalities, diagnosis, and resusciation methods

In CKB it is noted that Um Bup, Yang Bup and Ui Yak are combined into cohesive and comprehensive methods of proaction and reaction.

The unique characteristics of Choson Kwon Bup are:

1. There are no lock-out motions as in a basic lead fist thrust. The elbow remains suspended on impact.

2. The body weapon of choice does not remain in contact with the target for more than a "split second" - create fluid shock.

3. Evasion methods are an intergral part of the delivery of all skills. Evasion, dodging and footwork are all meant to assume a position of tactical advantage - occupy the attacker blind spot.

4. Cocking or chambering motions are kept to minimum, i.e. telegraphing is kept to a minimum. Body positioning, footwork and evasive methods compensates for this techincal error.

5. All motion utilizes angular rotation and eliptical (rotation) movements to reduce joint stress and repetitive strain injuries.
11.4) Gicheon Mun (Kichun Mun)
Intro:  A martial art based on meditation and the cultivation of inner power.
Origin:    Korean art possibly evolved from the Chinese arts of Bagua Zhang and Preying Mantis, combined with Daoist meditation techniques. Quite unique in Korea in approach, style and training regimen.
Gicheon Mun was brought out into the public during the 1960's but has
not spread. The difficulty and length of classes discourage many as does
the effort required to reach proficiency. In one sense the name means,
Gateway to Heavenly Energy. Gicheon Mun practitioners are trying to
develop their inner energy in accordance with principles of universal
balance in hope that they can achieve harmonious lives. Younger
practitioners seem to enjoy the powerful and brutal fighting techniques.

Beginners focus on learning to adopt very extreme stances, built on the
principles of developing strength and tenacity from Yok Geun. This
technique is one of opening joints to their maximum range of motion and
holding them open for ever longer periods of time. Harmonized muscular
development is a primary goal in Gicheon and much attention is paid to
safe, facilitating warm-ups. Total body conditioning and strength is
required to progress.

Intermediate students move on to a variety of forms and drills (solo or
partner) for unarmed, sword, and staff skills. Progress is slow and
always routed in the gradual expansion of application of the basic
techniques. The art prides itself on efficiency and effectiveness, both
in combat and in developing health.

The most striking thing about Gicheon is the means of generating power
and the tactics for employing that power effectively.

Training involves demanding stance work, solo drills and study of forms.
Free sparring is generally not done based on philosophical reasons.
Students are expected to learn and demonstrate multiple interpretations
and applications for the basic principles in addition to discovering
their own.

An Online Resource:


11.5) Hai Dong Gumdo (Haedong Kumdo)
Intro:  A martial art based on the study of the sword.
Origin:    Korea
Hai Dong Gumdo (Korean Swordsmanship - Hai Dong refers to the light
energy at dawn over the East Sea, and was also the Chinese way of
referring to the Korean Peninsula) draws its techniques from many areas.
Most commonly referenced of course is the Muyedotobongi although this is
less an influence than the martial arts of Gicheon Mun and Shimgumdo.
While sourced in many disparate traditions, the art is elegantly refined
into one cohesive and systematically presented pathway to mastery of the
sword. The underpinnings of the art are based in the ancient Koguryo
Kingdom of the 3rd to 6th century, primarily the emphasis on a rigid
code of ethics. The techniques are clearly the result of dedicated and
serious attempts to make the style effective, functional, and accessible
to modern students.
Students begin with swords from the first day of practice and are
expected to work hard to build up the level of fitness required for
regular swordwork. The beginner will start with a wooden sword
(mog-gom). Intermediate students will generally be asked to begin
practice with a metal training sword (ka-gum) to prepare for the weight,
balance and danger of using live weapons after first dan. The average
weight of a mog-gom is 300 grams. The average weight of a ka-gum is 900
grams. Real swords (jin-gom) vary in weight by style and fittings but
average at 1.1 or 1.2 kg.

For the most part only dan ranks practice cutting objects. Typical
objects to employ in cutting drills are bamboo poles and rice stalk
sheaves. Bamboo simulates cutting bone while the sheaves simulate flesh.
Sometimes the two are combined. In addition to cutting static objects, a
skilled cutter must be capable of slicing thrown objects.

Classes are quite formal with dedication and serious intent being vital.
The art itself is very circular and flowing. Students must learn to
develop speed and accuracy in harmony with timed releases of power.
Sophisticated means of power generation keep the art challenging as each
level brings new refinements and means to the same ends.

Generally, there is no sparring unless certain conditions are met. At
present (2003) some parts of Korea are trying to develop competitive
rules using the bamboo sword and a newly developed form of full-body
armour. This movement is being met with mixed reactions. Old style
sparring was unarmoured, non-contact with moggum, light contact with
fist, elbow, knee, palm and foot. Some schools supported a full contact
form of sparring with the bamboo sword, either armoured or not. It will
take some time for the Federation as a whole to either embrace or
discard formal sparring rules for competition. For the most part, the
idea of competition is antithetical to the principles of the art.


Training involves working on basics, solo drills and study of forms
(gom-bub). Haidong Gumdo students must learn a substantial number of
forms as they progress. In addition to the forms there are key-point
drills, solo and partner drills, breath-based meditation of various
forms, basic and intermediate self-defense training, as well as soft and
hard object cutting. A student will learn basic and effective methods to
counter punches and kicks, will learn tumbling and safe falling
practices as well as gain an understanding of basic punches and kicks as
well. At higher levels, access to a more complete unarmed curriculum is
possible, depending on the instructor. Classes generally last for an
hour and focus on perfection of stances and power generation while in
motion. Individual practice time is often provided after the lesson.

Some Online Resources:

http://www.hdgd.org.com (English now available)

An Offline Resource for speakers of Korean:

211-1, Neugpyumg-ri, Opo-up, Gwangju City, Gyunggi-do, Korea 464-892
Tel:031-714-4471~2 Fax:031-715-5433

11.6) Hankido
Intro:  Han means nation or country and Ki means life energy or inner power. The term Hanki therefore refers to the inherent spirit of the Korean nation. Hankido is thus a uniquely Korean creation that reflects the history and culture of the people that created it.

Hankido is primarily intended to be a defensive martial style and should be used for purely defensive purposes. When an attacker confronts a Hankido practitioner, he or she should endeavor to use the least amount of force in order to control the situation. One of the goals of Hankido is the development of a non-violent attitude, which can be achieved through self-control, patience, and forgiveness. Because of this, a strict ethical and moral worldview is therefore inherent to Hankido. This is manifested in the four basic elements of courtesy, respect, right attitude and the understanding of one's own center. It is non-competitive and not combat oriented.

The late Grandmaster Myong, Jae Nam developed Hankido in order to be easy to learn. Grandmaster Myong was born to a family of martial artists. A student of martial arts for over 50 years, he became a master of Hapkido and teacher in 1959 and later established the IHF in 1981. Hankido, one of his most significant achievements, has been in the making since 1985 and was publicly introduced in 1992.

Hankido consists of twelve basic self-defense techniques that are connected to twenty-four breathing techniques. Hankido practitioners should carefully and correctly practice the twelve basic techniques slowly and quietly several thousands times. The basic punches, kicks, locks and throws can be learned in a very short period of time, probably three to five months. Hankido is a very versatile martial art; practitioners learn how to perform their techniques using both the left and right side of their bodies.

Offensive techniques (Chun Ki Bup) are intended to increase the practitioner's internal power or ki. Defensive techniques (Ji Ki Bup) will improve muscles, bones, and organs. Offensive techniques are important but cannot stand-alone. In order to become a great martial artist, the harmony that defensive techniques provide must be utilized. Without these the Hankido practitioner cannot be truly effective. Defensive techniques are also noteworthy for their health benefits. By practicing defensive and offensive techniques together as an interconnected whole, the practitioner will radiate ki, the ultimate power of Hankido.

Since the passing of Grandmaster Myong, Jae Nam in 1999, the International HKD Federation has continued to carry on his legacy by appointing Grandmaster Myong, Jae Nam's son Myong, Sung Kwang as the new leader of the International HKD Federation.

The International HKD Federation has its headquarters in Yong-In, South Korea, and includes perhaps one million members worldwide.

The International HKD Federation stands for Hapkido, Hankido and Hankumdo. The main principles of the International HKD Federation are:

1.) Jeon Hwan Bup/Conversion Art (circling arms step exercise)
2.) Young Yu Bup/Inverse Art (wrist lead exercise)
3.) Shim Hwa Bup/Mind Harmony Art (rowing exercise)

The International HKD Federation also teaches us the Eight Basic Techniques of HKD.

1.) Ho Shin Do Bup (self defense techniques)
2.) Moo Ye Do Bup (spinning defense techniques)
3.) Su Jok Do Bup (striking techniques)
4.) Kyuk Ki Do Bup (sparring techniques)
5.) Ki Hap Do Bup (spiritual techniques)
6.) Byung Sool Do Bup (weapon defense techniques)
7.) Su Chim Do Bup (pressure point manipulation)
8.) Hwan Sang Do Bup (visualization techniques)


11.7) Hankumdo
Intro: For those that are interested in Hankido, Grandmaster Myong also developed a sword art called Hankumdo.


Hankumdo is a sword art based on the shapes of the Korean alphabet or Hangul. Developed by the late grandmaster Myong Jae Nam, Hankumdo techniques can be divided into two parts, striking techniques and defensive techniques. Using the five basic striking techniques it is possible to write the entire Korean alphabet of 24 different characters. Each character consists of one or more of these five basic techniques.

One who is familiar with the Korean written language can learn the basics of Hankumdo very quickly. The defensive techniques of Hankumdo are based on the principles of Hankido.
11.8) Han Mu Do
Intro:  An eclectic martial art somewhat similar to Hapkido.
Origin:    Korea
Following World War II, martial arts in Korea began to boom
again. In order to understand today's Korean martial arts history, one must
first understand evolution of Korea martial arts since 1945.

There have been three stages involved in the evolution of Korean martial
arts. The first stage is known as the Pioneer Stage (1945-1960). Many Korean
martial arts masters, some of whom trained overseas, returned to Korea and
intermingled with masters who had remained in Korea training in the martial

The second stage is known as the Developmental Stage (1960-1970). During
this period each Korean martial art came under govermental conrtol. This led
to a more standardized method of teaching.

In the third stage, the Maturing Stage (1970-present day), the second and
third generations of martial artists took control and organized martial arts
in terms of techniques and organizational structure. From this point, the
practice and knowledge of Korean martial arts spread throughout the world.
Thes second and third generations of martial artists began to restructure
the traditional techniques and philosophy of the martial arts to fit
contemporary times. One of these masters was Dr. He-Young Kimm.

Dr. Kimm began studying Yudo and Bi Sool under the instruction of Song
Kang-sub (1953). After further training in many different types of Korean
martial arts. Among his many teachers, Kimm considers Song Kwang-sub and Yun
Yong-jo as his Yudo and Bi Sool teachers. Won Kwang-wha and Ji Han-jae as
his Hapkido teachers, Kang Suh-jong as his Tae Kwon Do teacher, Sun In-hyuk
as his Kuk Sool teacher, Son Duk-ki as his Kum Do teacher, Cho Seung-yong as
his Kum Do teacher, Kim Kwang-suk as his Ship Phal Ke teacher and Sung Soo
Dae Sa as his Zen teacher.

From 1958 through 1963, Kimm taught Korean martial arts self-defense
techniques to the 8th United States Army stationed in Pusan Area Command,
Pusan, Korea. Upon the recommendation of Colonel Angle Myer, Kimm was
invited to the United States by Dr. Mark Scully. Dr. Scully, President of
Southeast Missouri State University, invited Kimm to Cape Girodeau, Missouri
to become the Korean martial arts instructor in the Physical Education
Department while continuing his education.

Kimm arrived in the United States on November 1, 1963. He began teaching
Yudo, Hapkido and Tae Kwon Do to the students of Southeast Missouri State
University on November 3. One of the first students was Dr. Scully's son,

With the assistance of Dr. Scully, the Korean martial arts population grew
rapidly and required pre-registration in order to get into Kimm's class.
Kimm was invited to and attended many martial arts tournaments throughout
the southern and mid-western areas of the United States. He performed
numerous demonstrations and in 1967, he was selected as "Best Martial Arts
Instructor" by a Chicago martial arts group.

With the encouragement of Suh In-hyuk, the founder of Kuk Sool, and Ji
Han-jae, the founder of modern Hapkido, Dr. Kimm organized his own style of
martial arts called Han Mu Do.
Han means Korea (nation of optimism) and Mu Do means martial
arts. Therefore, Han Mu Do translates to Korea martial arts. This system
was founded by Grandmaster He-Young Kimm in 1989. Han Mu Do is registed to
the Korean Government as a recognized style of Korean martial arts.
(Registered Number 534)

The founder of Han Mu Do, Grandmaster He-Young Kimm. During his forty years
of training and research in numerous styles of Korean martial arts, he found
the strength and weaknesses of thes arts. Most modern Korean martial arts
were founded during the 1950's to fit the needs of that generation in Korea.
For example, Korean self-defense emphasized defense against wrist, cloth and
body seizes. The reason for this was because before opponents engaged in
fighting, the attacker would grab the wrist, cloth or body of his
opponentand then either push, pull, punch or kick and then throw. Since
then, instead of grabbing first, the fighting pattern has changed and now an
attacker also the option of kicking or punching first. Therefore, Dr. Kimm
felt that a need for a balance between defense against wrist, cloth and/or
body seize was needed with punches and kicks.

Another reason that Dr. Kimm created the Han Mu Do system was because that
since the 1950's, more traditional self-defense techniques were discovered
by various masters and new innovative techniques were added as a part of the
Korean self-defense system. Those traditonal techniques founded recently and
new innovative techniques are deserved to be a part of Korean self-defense
systems today.

Thirdly, since 1962, Dr. Kimm has been collecting historical material and
conducting interviews and research on Korean martial arts. In 1999, Dr. Kimm
is planning to publish and release the book. "History of Korean Martial
Arts" which will contain the date and information that he has collected over
the years. During the research for this book, Dr. Kimm has met hundreds of
Korean martial arts masters from different styles of martial arts including
Tae Kyun, Soo Byuk Ta, Yu Do, Yu Sul, Tae Kwon Do, Kum Do, Kum Sool, Kung
Do, Kung Sul, Hapkido, Kuk Sool, Ship Phal Ki and Son Do Sul. Dr. Kimm not
only verbally interviewed with masters of these styles of martial arts, but
also trained under many of them in order to understand the technical aspects
of their respective arts as well as the theoretical and historical
backgrounds. Dr. Kimm incorporated many of those techniques into the Han Mu
Do system.

The Han Mu Do System has been divided into four main divisions. These
divisions are:

1. Yuh Kwon Sul (Empty hand techniques)
2. Mu Ki Sul (Weapon techniques)
3. Son Do Sul (Ki exercises)
4. Han Chul Hak (Han philosophy)

The unique characteristic of Han Mu Do is the emphasis of a "centered" or
balanced system.

1. The balance between non-weapon and weapon techniques.
2. The balance between external muscle techniques and internal Ki techniques.
3. The balance between physical body training and philosophical, mental and
   spiritual training.
4. The balance between left side and right side techniques.
5. The balance between traditional philosophy and traditional techniques and
   the new new innovative philosophy and techniques.

URLs:  www.hanmudo.com
11.9) Hapkido
This Korean art is sometimes confused with the Japanese art of Aikido,
since the Korean and Japanese translation of the two names is the same.
Origin:    Korea
Hapkido history is the subject of some controversy.
Some sources say that the founder of Hapkido, Choi, Yong Sul was a
houseboy/servant of Japanese Daito Ryu Aiki-Jujutsu GrandMaster Takeda,
Sokaku.  In Japan Choi possibly used the Japanese name Yoshida, Tatsujutsu
since all immigrants to Japan took Japanese names at that time.  Choi's
Japanese name has also been given as Asao, Yoshida by some sources.

According to this view, Choi studied under Takeda in Japan from 1913, when
he was age 9, until Takeda died in 1943.  However, Daito Ryu records do
not reflect this, so hard confirmation is not available at this time.  Some
claim that Choi's Daito Ryu training was limited to attending seminars and
watching classes from the sideline.  The Daito Ryu/Hapkido lineage is as
  Shinka Saburo Yoshimitsu, 12th Century, Daito Ryu
  Saigo Chikamasa, 1829-1905, Oshikiuchi
  Takeda Sokaku, 1858-1943, Aiki-Jujutsu
  Choi Yong Sool, 1904-1986, Hapkido
Ueshiba, Morihei, the founder of Aikido, was also a student of Takeda (this
is not disputed).  Hapkido and Aikido have significant similarities to
Daito Ryu Aiki-Jujutsu, so it would seem that Hapkido's link to it is real,
regardless of how and where Choi was trained.
Choi returned to Korea after Takeda's death and began teaching Yu Sool or
Yawara (other names for Jujutsu), eventually calling his kwan (or school)
the Hapki Kwan.  Ji, Han-Jae, began studying under Choi in 1949 and eventually
started his own school, where he taught an art that he named Hapkido.
(GM Ji now calls his system Sin Moo (pronounced 'Shin Moo') Hapkido.  He
currently lives and teaches in Elkins Park, PA, near Philadelphia)
Several other of Choi's Hapkido students are still living.  Chang, Chun Il
currently resides in New York state, and Im, Hyon Soo who lives and teaches
in Korea.  Both of these men were promoted to 9th dan by GM Choi.
Hapkido combines joint locks, pressure points, throws, kicks, and strikes
for practical self-defense.  Emphasizes circular motion, non-resistive
movements, and control of the opponent.
Although Hapkido contains both outfighting and infighting techniques, the
goal in most situations is to get inside for a close-in strike, lock, or
throw.  When striking, deriving power from hip rotation is strongly emphasized.
Varies with organization and instructor.  In some schools beginners
concentrate on basic strikes and kicks, along with a few joint locks and
throws.  Some of the striking and kicking practice is form-like, that is,
with no partner, however, most is done with a partner who is holding heavy
pads that the student strikes and kicks full power.
Advanced students add a few more strikes and kicks as well as many more
throws, locks, and pressure points.  There is also some weapons training
for advanced students - primarily rope/scarf, short stick, cane, boken,
and staff.
Some schools do forms, most do not.  Some do sparring and some do not,
although at the advanced levels, most schools do at least some sparring.
Many Hapkido techniques are unsuitable for use in sparring as their use
would result in injury, even when protective gear is used.  Thus sparring
typically uses only a limited subset of techniques.
There is generally an emphasis on physical conditioning and exercise,
including "ki" exercises.
11.10) Hwa Rang Do
Intro: Hwa Rang Do is a comprehensive, modern, eclectic martial arts
system encompassing unarmed combat, weaponry, internal training and healing
Origin:    Korea
In March 1942, the founder of Hwa Rang Do, Dr. Joo Bang Lee and
his brother, Joo Sang Lee were introduced to the Buddhist monk Suahm Dosa
by their father, who was a personal friend of the monk, and they began
their formal training aged 5 & 6.
The brothers lived and trained as students under the monk on
the weekends and during school vacations and also trained in other
martial arts when they were unable to train under Suahm Dosa.  Influences
includes Boxing, Yudo, Komdo, and Kongsoodo.  In addition, the Lee
brothers studied Hapkido under GM Choi Yong Sool.
In April 1960 Dr. Joo Bang Lee claims to have created his martial art by
combining Suham Dosa's techniques with the other systems he had trained.
He choose the name Hwa Rang Kwan to describe his system and this also
is thought to be the first time that Hwa Rang was used in connection
with unarmed Korean martial arts.
Since there is no way of knowing if the techniques Suahm Dosa taught the
brothers actually was the martial art of the Silla Hwa Rang, or another
form of monk martial art, Dr. Joo Bang Lee says he wanted to "combine
the spirit and philosophy of the Hwa Rang with his martial arts knowledge".
In 1962, the Lee Brother's founded the Korean Martial Arts Association
(Han Kuk Mu Sul Hwe - shortened name Kuk Sul Hwe).  Due to various
conflicts within the leadership of the Korean Martial Arts Association
it was disbanded in 1966 and its original members started their own
respective organizations.
Following this dissolution, Dr. Joo Bang Lee concentrated his efforts
solely on the development of his own martial arts system.  He called it Hwa
Rang Do, "The Way of the Flowering Manhood".
In 1968, Head Grandmaster Joo Sang Lee taught Hapkido and Hwa Rang Do in
the USA.  Dr. Joo Bang Lee became the system's "Supreme Grandmaster" upon
Suahm Dosa's death in 1969.  He immigrated to the USA in 1972 and later
founded the World Hwa Rang Do Association.  Today  World Hwa Rang Do
Association is headquartered in Downey, California (USA).  Joo Sang Lee is
no longer involved with JB Lee's Hwa Rang Do.
Kim, Myung Man of Australia also independently named his art Hwa Rang Do.
Kim Myung Man's teaching are based on his training in Chang Moo Kwan and
his training with the military.  As with JB Lee's Hwa Rang Do, Kim's material
is a derivative of Hapkido, has a focus on full-power fighting techniques,
covert skills and Ki cultivation.
Description:  JB Lee's Hwa Rang Do is a combination of UM (soft/circular
movement) and YANG (hard/linear movement), making it a very diversified
and comprehensive martial art.  The Mu Sul (martial aspects) of Hwa Rang Do
can be further explained in four distinct - though interconnecting - paths
of study.
NAE GONG - deals with developing, controlling, and directing one's Ki,
or internal energy force, through breathing and meditation exercises in
conjunction with specific physical techniques. Due to the exercises'
internal nature, they demand patience and concentration.
WAE GONG - Wae gong includes more than 4000 offensive and defensive
combative applications.  Combining elements predominantly tense and
linear in nature with those soft and circular, these techniques mesh to
form a natural fighting system.  This phase includes full instruction in
all hand strikes and blocks (trapping and grabbing as well as deflection
applications, using the hands, wrist, forearm, elbows, arms and
shoulders), 365 individual kicks, throws and falls from any position and
onto any surfaces, human anatomical structure as it pertains to combat
applications (knowing and utilizing the body's weak points to
effectively control the opponent, regardless of their size), joint
manipulation and breaking, finger pressure-point application, prisoner
arrest, control and transport, grappling applications, forms, offensive
choking and flesh-tearing techniques, defense against multiple
opponents, breaking techniques, counter-attacks, and killing techniques.
MOO GI GONG - involves the offensive and defensive use of the over 108
traditional weapons found within 20 categories of weaponry.  By learning
these various weapon systems, the practitioner can most effectively
utilize any available object as a weapon as the situation demands.
SHIN GONG - is the study, development, and control of the human mind in
order to attain one's full potential and mental capabilities.  Techniques
are taught to achieve an increase in one's total awareness, focus, and
concentration levels.
Included are instruction in : controlling one's mind; development of the
"sixth sense"; memory recall; the study of human character and
personalities; practical psychology; visualization; the art of
concealment and stealth as utilized by special agents (Sulsa); as well
as advanced, secretive applications.
Hwa Rang Do teaches both the martial art (mu-sul) and healing art
(in-sul).  If one is able to injure or worse, then he/she should know how
to heal as well, once again maintaining harmony through balance of
opposites.  The In Sul aspects (the study of the Oriental Healing Arts)
of Hwa Rang Do are every bit as complex and demanding as the study of
Occidental Medicine. First aid applications, revival techniques are
taught in conjunction with the traditional full studies of acupuncture,
acupressure, herbal and natural medicines, and bone setting.
Training: A typical training session includes Meditation (beginning and
end of class).  Total body stretching and warm-up exercises. Basic
punching and kicking practice.  Ki power exercises. "Basic-8" combination
drills (which vary by belt rank).  Two-man countering techniques (vary by
belt rank).  Open session which may include: sparring, tumbling,
grappling, sweeps, or advanced techniques. Self-defense techniques. Cool
down exercises.  Hwa Rang Do code of ethics.
For additional information on Master JB Lee's HwaRangDo:
World Hwa Rang Do Association
8200 E. Firestone Blvd.
Downey, CA 90241
(562) 861-0111
Sub-styles:  Michael DeAlba's Modern Hwa Rang Do
URLs:   www.hwarangdo.com

11.11) Kong Shin Bup
Intro: Kong Shin Bup is a Kwan Yu Sool (hard/soft) system that makes full use of the study of Ki (Ki Hak).
The founder of Kong Shin Bup was Grandmaster Pak, In Shyuk (1938 - 1995). Pak In Shyuk was a graduate of Dong Kuk University in Korea where he studied psychology and Buddhist Philosophy. Master Pak visited hundreds of temples in the Far East to learn and train and the art he founded is strongly influenced by these sources along with his Buddhist background. Master Pak studied with the well known martial artist Choi Yong Sool and was a peer of Suh In Hyuk and Lee Joo Bang.

Master Pak immigrated to Canada sometime during the 1960's and opened his first North American martial art school in Sault Ste Marie, Ontario in 1967. Although Master Pak had already developed the lower rank curriculum of Kong Shin Bup while he was in Korea, the art he taught in Canada at that time was called Kuk Sool Hap Ki Do. Certification came from Korea and was signed by Grandmaster Suh In Hyuk.

Pak In Shyuk, along with a few other masters, were partners with Suh In Hyuk in the Kuk Sool Hap Ki Do Association. There was a split among the masters of this orgranization when their partnership collapsed. After this split Pak began to teach his style of Kong Shin Bup.

In 1984, after many years of searching for his instructor, Timmerman received a tip from one of his law enforcement students, and he finally located Master Pak in Edmonton, Alberta. Master Pak revealed that he had gone into seclusion in order to develop yet another martial art he called Tae Geuk Do. In order to fully concentrate on this new art, Master Pak tested and promoted Master Timmerman to the rank of 8th Dan Kong Shin Bup (certificate # 0561). At the same time he legally transferred the rights to the art and the name Kong Shin Bup to Master Timmerman.

In 1984 Master Timmerman duly registered the name Kong Shin Bup as a non-profit organization with the Canadian government; however, he declined to assume leadership of the art while Grandmaster Pak was still alive. Master Pak continued to spread the art of Tae Geuk Do and several schools around the globe still teach this art.

In 1989, Master Timmerman fully assumed the rank and title of heir to the art of Kong Shin Bup. At the same time, Master Timmerman renewed his focus on further developing the National Korean Martial Arts Association he had founded in 1973.

In 1995, Grandmaster Pak unfortunately died of heart failure.
The art of Kong Shin Bup is a Kwan Yu Sool (hard/soft) system that makes full use of the extensive knowledge about the study of Ki (Ki Hak) of its founder, Grand Master Pak In Shyuk. Ki Hak studies include the studies of Monks Won Hyo, Sosan and Samyongdang who pioneered the study of Whal Bup and Hyol Bup. Healing techniques, acupuncture and acupressure are part of the more advanced study of Kong Shin Bup and it uses 270 Ki points to make its 3000+ self-defense techniques more effective.

Kong Shin Bup practitioners must study human anatomy and Ki meridians to better employ these pressure points. In fact, one can easily tell if a Kong Shin Bup practitioner is "for real" by looking at the manner in which s/he uses the combination of precise angles and pressure points while applying self-defense techniques and joint locks. These sophisticated techniques demand many hours of extensive study and it takes the average student longer to earn rank than it does in many other arts. Demanding breaking requirements prevent children from safely earning rank, thus the art will likely never gain high popularity.

Hyung (forms) are taught as a learning tool rather than simulated fights. KSB practitioners will use low stances in order to develop strong legs for kicking and jumping. A unique feature of KSB Hyung training is that stances are quite narrow. While this is unusual for a Kwan Sool hard style (such styles often rely on a wider, more solid, stance), it does prepare the students better for the circular motion of the Yu Sool soft style. Narrow stances also teach the importance of good balance right from the start. More importantly, the practitioner of KSB will not be hampered at any stage of training by trying to perform circular techniques from a stance that is too wide to allow for quick turns.

Kong Shin Bup employs the use of all Korean weapons in order to give the student a taste of all authentic Korean martial art techniques. Grandmaster Pak was the first to admit that specialization in one area of training would no doubt give a practitioner best results. Again, there is a very methodical organization to the use of weapons. The first weapons taught are the shorter ones such as the short staff. Once the short weapons are mastered, the student is introduced to the longer weapons such as the middle and long staff. Lastly, the student will learn bladed weapons such as the sword and spear. Masters are expected to learn the more exotic weapons such as the fan, the bow and arrow, as well as stone, sand and rock throwing.

URLs: www.nkmaa.ca
11.12) Kuk Sool Won
Kuk Sool Won is a comprehensive system of the traditional Korean
martial arts; it is not a 'style' of martial art per se.  It incorporates
aspects of different martial arts, including Hapkido and Ship Pal Gi.
Origin:    Korea
In 1910, Japan dismantled the Korean Royal Court armies as a part
of their occupation of the Korean peninsula.  The practice of any Korean
martial art was prohibited and martial arts weapons were confiscated. One
of those who went into hiding was Master Instructor Suh Myuhng Duk. He
started training his grandson, Suh In Hyuk at the age of 5 and continued to
train with him until his untimely death during the Korean War. Suh In Hyuk
had letters of introduction, though, and continued to train with other
practitioners of traditional Korean MAs. One teacher, Hai Dong Seu Nym,
instructed Suh in special types of breathing exercises, meditation
techniques and ki skills. Another very influential teacher was Hapkido's
Choi Yong Sool.
In the 1960's Suh In Hyuk organized the martial arts he had learned and
produced a system he called Kuk Sool. He associated it as Kuk Sool Won
in 1961. In 1974 Suh In Hyuk came to the US. He established the World Kuk Sool
Association Headquarters in 1975 in San Francisco; later moved to Houston, Texas.
Kuk Sool Won is a comprehensive system of Korean martial arts.  
It includes joint-locking, grappling, sparring, throwing techniques,
forms training, falling principles, pressure point striking, accupressure
and acupuncture, hand striking, leg techniques, acrobatics, body
conditioning, animal-style techniques, weapons, internal energy systems,
meditation and breathing techniques.
URLs:  www.kuksoolwon.com
11.13) Kumdo
Intro:      A popular sport in Japanese and Korean communities.
Origin:     Japan
Kumdo (Kendo in Japan) is the sport and competitive form of the Japanese art
of Kenjutsu.  Kumdo has been practiced for a long time in one form or another.
The practitioners wear protective armor and use simulated swords (split
bamboo called "shinai") to "spar" against one another.  Strike areas are
limited as are moves.  It is a very formal art.  It is linear, hard, and external.
Training mostly consists of two-person drills, basics, and some kata that
have been retained from kenjutsu between individuals.
11.14) Soo Bahk Do
Intro:      A traditional Korean unarmed martial art. Soo (hand) Bahk (strike 
or educated) Do (way or road).  A hard/soft classical art with powerful kicking techniques.
Origin:     Korea
History:   Soo Bahk as Soo Bahk Hi / Soo Bahk Ki is mentioned often
throughout ancient korean history when martial arts are mentioned. Most
specifically in the Moo Ye Do Bo Tong Ji (Military Arts Manual) which was
writen in the 1700's. During the Japanese occupation of Korea GM Hwang Kee
after learning a bit of TaekKyon left Korea for China where he was
able to study Chinese Gung Fu. In 1945 he returned to Korea and opened
his scool called Moo Duk Kwan (Institude of Martial Virtue) calling the art Hwa
Soo Do (way of the flowering hand) do to lack of a name for his art. When he
had extreme difficulty attracting students he reopened his school as Tang
Soo Do after gaining the permission of other Seoul instructors using that
term. He rapidily found success. In 1957 Hwang Kee found the Moo Ye Do
Bo Tong Ji in the Ministry of Transportation library. In it was described what
GM Hwang claimed was the martial art of Soo Bahk Hi.

In 1961 he reincorperated the Korean Tang Soo Do Association as the
Korean Soo Bahk Do Association. The Moo Duk Kwan being the first member
school to join and the Ji Do Kwan which had taught it's art as
Kong Soo Do was the next member school to join. These two schools
together comprised over 70% of students with Dan ranking in Korea
at that time. By about 1964 most students had left the Korean Soo Bahk
Do Association. The Ji Do Kwan founder also quit, leaving Moo Duk Kwan as
the only remaining school. Over a period of time instructors where sent over
seas. Due to the two names many American servicemen had been taught (Tang
Soo Do and Soo Bahk Do) many other countries had the art introduced as Tang
Soo Do.
Description: Soo Bahk Do is a hard soft style with powerful kicking
techniques similar to Tae Kwon Do. It does make greater use of the hands
however. Students are encouraged to be "warriors" but to also be
scholars. Students are expected to learn korean terminology and history as
well as encourgaed to learn beyond these areas. As a classical Martial arts
there is relatively little competion to the point of almost none in some
areas. A unique aspect of Soo Bahk Do is also the fact that "Black Belts"
don't wear black but Midnight Blue instead. The theory is that black is
infinate and therefore perfect and as one can never be perfect the Dans wear
blue to siginify that imptovemnet is always possible. The emphasis in Soo
Bahk Do is on Physical, Spiritual and Mental well being as well as self
defense. Students practice forms, sparring and self defense techniques
similar to those in Aikido. Dan level students learn to defend against knives
and short staves.
Influences:  Northern chinese, due to GM Hwang Kee's studies in China.
Okinawan, GM Hwang Kee utilized Okinawan Forms learned from a book
wriiten by Funakoshi.
URLs: www.soobahkdo.com, www.soobahkdo.org
11.15) Taekwondo
Intro:    One of the most popular sports and martial arts in the world.  Often
characterized by its fast, high, and powerful spinning kicks.  Tae = Foot,
Kwon = Fist, Do = Way.
Origin:   Korea
After fifty years of occupation by Japan (which ended in 1945) and after
the division of the nation by the Korean War, Korean nationalism spurred
the creation of a national art in the 1950s.  Combining the styles of
numerous Kwans active within the country since 1945, the name Taekwondo
was eventually settled upon and began being used throughout S.Korea
about 1964.  Names frequently used prior to that were Tang Soo Do, Kong
Soo Do, Kwon Bup, Hwa Soo Do, and Tae Soo Do.  The name Taekwondo was
apparently selected because of its similarity with the name Taek-kyon, a
martial art native to Korea.
The kwans, or schools, previously mentioned that were
most involved were: 
School  Founder
Chung Do Kwan
Song Moo Kwan 
Moo Duk Kwan
Yon Moo Kwan  
Chang Moo Kwan
Chi/Ji Do Kwan 
Oh Do Kwan    
Won Kuk Lee
Noh Byung Jik
Hwang Kee
Chun Sang Sup
Pyong In Yun
Yon Kue Pyang
Choi Hong Hi and Nam Tae Hi
In April 1955, a committee was organized by Gen. Choi Hong Hi to choose a
unifying name for the art practiced by the original Kwans.  Attending this
meeting were various business leaders and also Chung Do Kwan instructors
GM Son Duk Sung and GM Hyun Jong Myun.  Gen. Choi, as chairman of the
committee, is credited with suggesting the name "Tae Kwon".  The committee
unanimously agreed.  However, the name was not immediately accepted by the
other Kwans.
Various organizations were formed over the years to bring the Korean
martial arts under one roof:  the Korea Tang Soo Do Association, the
Korea Kong Soo Do Association, Korea Soo Bahk Do Association, and the
Korea Tae Soo Do Association.  Finally, the Korea Taekwondo Association
was born out of the Korea Tae Soo Do Association in 1965.
In 1966 the International Taekwon-do Federation (ITF) was formed by Gen.
Choi as a private organization.  Gen. Choi focused his efforts and that
of the ITF on popularizing Taekwondo outside of S.Korea.  In 1972, Gen.
Choi and the ITF left S.Korea and resettled in Canada.
In 1971 S.Korean President Park Chung Hee declared Taekwondo to be
Korea's national sport and funds were allocated to create the world
headquarters for Taekwondo, the Kukkiwon, completed in 1972.  In 1973
the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) was formed with Dr. Kim Un Yong as
President.  Taekwondo is an official olympic sport in Sydney 2000.
Other than the WTF and the ITF there are numerous smaller Taekwondo
federations and organizations, e.g. the American Taekwondo Association,
the Global Taekwon-do Federation, Universal Taekwondo Federation, US
Taekwondo Association, US National Taekwondo Federation, Unified
Taekwon-do International, World Taekwondo Association, etc., however all
these Taekwondo groups use somewhat similar techniques and approaching to
teaching and training.
Training frequently emphasizes sparring, forms, and basics.
Taekwondo was strongly influenced by Okinawan Karate and Japanese
Karate-do, because of the 50 year Japanese occupation of Korea.  It was
forbidden to train in Korean martial arts during the Japanese
occupation, so many people were trained in Japanese martial arts.  Also
many Koreans were sent to Japan for education and military training and
were taught Japanese martial arts during their time in Japan.
Taekwondo is a version of unarmed combat designed for the purpose of
self-defense.  It is the scientific use of a body that has gained the
ultimate use of its facilities through intensive physical and mental
The purpose of Taekwondo instruction is to help cultivate a person into
a physically, morally, and socially idealistic human being.  Physically,
it promotes health, self-defense ability, and enhancement of physical
abilities.  Mentally, it aids in social, emotional, and intellectual development.
The basic movements of Taekwondo are stances, blocks, kicks, and
strikes. The basic attacks are arm applied techniques such as punching
with a fist, striking with the edge of the hand or other part of the
body, basic kicking, and jump kicks.
Poomsae training is an important part of Taekwondo as offensive and defensive
techniques can be practiced and trained even without a training partner or
instructor being present.  During Poomsae training one must learn the pattern
and understand fully the significance of the moves in the pattern.
Sparring is often strongly stressed once a student begins to learn the
basic movements and techniques of Taekwondo.  This sparring may take the
form of use of street self-defense techniques or sport sparring
techniques.  Kicks are often stressed in Taekwondo as a person legs are
much stronger than their arms, thus kicks are frequently able to do more
damage to an attacker than punches.
Self-defense techniques such as fighting while in a sitting position, defense
against a short club, and defense against a knife.
Brief Taekwondo Bibliography:
"Korean Martial Sports" - Willy Pieter - 1994 - Journal of Asian Martial Arts
"Korean Hwarang and Japanese Samuray" - willy Pieter - 1984 - Olympic
  Scientific Congress (Schors-Verlag 1985)
"Etymological notes on the terminology of some Korean martial arts" - Willy
  Pieter - 1981 - Asian Journal of Physical Education.
"Interview with Master Park Jung Tae" - Paul Clifton - 1990 - Combat (November
"Instructors Profile: GM Park Jung Tae" - Dan & Katie Preuss - 1994 -
 TKD Times, December
"The flower boys of Silla" - R. Rutt - 1961 - Transactions of the Korean Branch
  of the Royal Asiatic Society.
"Taekwondo: The Korean art of self defense" - Choi H. H. - 1972 - ITF, Toronto.
11.16) Taekwondo Chung Do Kwan
Intro:     The original style of "Korean Karate".
Origin:    Yong Chun, Seoul, South Korea
Chung Do Kwan as translated into English is The Gym of the Blue Wave.
This original style of Taekwondo was founded by Grandmaster Won Kuk Lee
in 1944.  GM Lee received training in Shotokan Karate, under its founder
Funakoshi Gichen, while attending law school at Chuo University.  A
direct translation of Shotokan into Korean characters is pronounced as
Song Do Kwan, GM Lee changed the Song character to the Chung character
for the art he taught.  The explanation he gave for this is that in
Korea you do not name your child with your name.  GM Lee first began
teaching an art called Tang Soo Do in a middle school in Seoul.  That
school was closed shortly do to lack of students.  Then in 1945 in a
church GM Lee began to teach again, some of his students were Duk Sung
Son, Woon Kyu Uhm, Jong Myung Hyun, Jae Chun Ko, Jhoon Rhee, and Hyun Ok
When the Korean War broke out, GM Lee fled to Japan, choosing Son Duk
Sung as his successor.  GM Son was chosen partially because he was the
oldest of the senior students.
After the Korean War, many of the older Chung Do Kwan members who served
in the Korean military began opening Tang Soo Do Chung Do Kwan branches.
GM Son was later replaced by GM Uhm Woon Kyo.  GM Uhm still holds this
position today.
After moving to the United States, GM Son founded the World Tae Kwon Do
Association.  He later began reusing the name Chung Do Kwan in describing
his version of Taekwondo.
Through the years as the Korean martial arts progressed the term used to
refer to Chung Do Kwan had changed from Tang Soo Do to Tae Soo Do, and then
finally to Taekwondo.
As Chung Do Kwan is a style of Taekwondo, it follows the same ideas as
Taekwondo as a whole, with specialty techniques being the side kick,
flying side kick, jumping side kick, and later the turn around side
kick/back kick and jumping/flying turn around side/back kick.
All classes in the Chung Do Kwan began with a recitation of the membership
oath lead by the senior student:
We as members, train our spirits and bodies according to the strict code
We as members, are united in mutual friendship
We as members, will comply with regulations and obey instructors
Then class would begin with basics, followed by forms, and then 1, 3
and/or 5 step training, free sparring and then a formal bow out ceremony.
Also additional training was done with the Kwon Go (Makiwara) outside of
class by most students if not all, at some point it was included in the
formal workout, but is not present in Tae Kwon Do training today as it was then.
The original set of forms used by the Chung Do Kwan were taken from
Japan ese and Okinawan arts, later they were replaced by the military
Chon Ji set until Gen. Choi left Korea.  At that point the official
forms of the Chung Do Kwan and the other Kwans were the newly created
Palgwes and then finally replaced with the Tae Geuks.  Many Grandmasters
and Masters in the Chung Do Kwan have branched out and are no longer
affiliated with the WTF /Kukkiwon and the Korea Taekwondo Chung Do Kwan,
so many practitioners of the Chung Do Kwan style of Taekwondo know
practice many different forms, including all of the above as well as
others.  The only official current forms of the Korea Taekwondo Chung Do
Kwan are the WTF Tae Geuks.
Also of interest is the 30 year old US Chung Do Kwan Association headed
by GM Edward Sell.  The USCDKA has affiliated schools all over the USA
and a few other countries.
URLs:           www.uscdka.com
11.17) T'aeggyon (aka. Tae Kyun, Tae Kyon, Taek Kyon)
Intro: A traditional martial art of Korea.
Origin:      Korea.
T'aeggyon has been designated as a national treasure of Korea.  Originating
around the start of the nineteenth century, T'aeggyon is often described as
a parent art of the more famous t'aegwondo (aka. Tae Kwon Do, T'aekwondo,
Taekwon-Do).  T'aeggyon, as a traditional Korean martial art, was illegal
during the Japanese Occupation of Korea (1910-1945) and only two masters
were still active at the end of that era.  The most famous of these was
Duk-Ki Song(1893-1987), who repopularized t'aeggyon in the late 1950s.  Renewed
interest in t'aeggyon influenced the development of t'aegwondo, which until
then had closely mirrored its Japanese antecedent of Shotokan karate-do.
T'aeggyon is a game that serves to bridge the striking arts and the grappling
arts.  The person who gets the first point wins the bout.  You can earn a
point by:
   1.  Kicking the opponent in the head.
   2.  Throwing or sweeping the opponent to the floor.
Students learn crescent kicks, roundhouse kicks, and sweeps, as well as
some throws reminiscent of yudo (aka. judo).  Open palm pushes are the
most common hand technique.  Falling is also an important part of
training, including dive rolls, etc.  Students are divided into lower ranks
(ma-dang) and upper ranks (pum).
Practitioners in Pusan apparently allow front thrust kick during sparring.
The Seoul branch (at least those under Ki-Hyun Do) do not allow any thrust
kicks (ie. no front kicks or side kicks).  The Seoul branch also does not
teach any closed fist techniques or pressure point strikes.  Videos of
the Pusan style are available from Robert Young at his Korean Martial
Arts Resource (KMAR) web page.

URL:  www.taekkyon.or.kr/en/
11.18) Yudo
Yudo is the same as the Japanese art of Judo.  The following is a description
of Judo.
Origin:     Japan
Judo is derived from the Japanese arts of Jujutsu. It was created by Prof.
Jigoro Kano who was born in Japan in 1860 and who died in 1938 after a
lifetime of promoting Judo. Mastering several styles of jujutsu in his
youth Kano began to develop his own system based on modern sports principles.
In 1882 he founded the Kodokan Judo Institute in Tokyo where he began
teaching and which still is the international authority for Judo. The name
Judo was chosen because it means the "gentle way". Kano emphasised the
larger educational value of training in attack and defense so that it could
be a path or way of life that all people could participate in and benefit
from. He eliminated some of the traditional jujutsu techniques and changed
training methods so that most of the moves could be done with full force to
create a decisive victory without injury.
The popularity of Judo increased dramatically after a famous contest hosted
by the Tokyo police in 1886 where the Judo team defeated the most
well-known jujutsu school of the time. It then became a part of the
Japanese physical education system and began its spread around the world.
In 1964 men's Judo competition became a part of the Olympics, the only
eastern martial art that is an official medal sport. In 1992 Judo competition
for women was added to the Olympics.
Judo is practiced on mats and consists primarily of throws and grappling,
which includes pins, chokes, and armbars. Additional techniques,
including striking and various joint locks are found in the judo katas.
Judo is generally compared to wrestling but it retains its unique combat
forms.  As a daughter to Jujutsu these techniques are also often taught
in Judo classes.
Because the founder was involved in education (President of Tokyo
University) Judo training emphasizes mental, moral and character
development as much as physical training.  Most instructors stress the
principles of Judo such as the principle of yielding to overcome greater
strength or size, as well as the scientific principles of leverage,
balance, efficiency, momentum and control.
Judo training has many forms for different interests.  Some students
train for competition by sparring and entering the many tournaments that
are available.  Other students study the traditional art and forms (kata)
of Judo.  Other students train for self-defense, and yet other students
play Judo for fun. Black belts are expected to learn all of these aspects
of Judo.
Because Judo originated in modern times it is organized like other major
sports with one international governing body, the International Judo
Federation (IJF), and one technical authority (Kodokan).  There are several
small splinter groups  (such as the Zen Judo Assoc.) who stress judo as a
"do" or path, rather than a sport.
Unlike other martial arts, Judo competition rules, training methods, and
rank systems are relatively uniform throughout the world.
12.0 TaeKwonDo Olympic sparring rules

Please follow the below link for the latest version of competition rules
as recently adopted by the World Taekwondo Federation.


13.0 Brief History of Korea

The ancient history of the Korean peninsula can be traced to the Neolithic
Age, when Turkic-Manchurian-Mongol peoples migrated into the region from
China. The first agriculturally based settlements appeared around 6000
B.C.E. Some of the larger communities of this era were established along
the Han-gang River near modern-day Seoul, others near Pyongyang and Pusan.
According to ancient lore, Korea's earliest civilization, known as Choson,
was founded in 2333 B.C.E. by Tan-gun.

In the 17th century, Korea became a vassal state of China and was cut off
from outside contact until the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-95. Following
Japan's victory, Korea was granted independence. By 1910 Korea had been
annexed by Japan, which developed the country but never won over the
Korean nationalists who continued to agitate for independence.

After Japan's surrender at the conclusion of World War II, the Korean
peninsula was partitioned into two occupation zones, divided at the 38th
parallel. The U.S.S.R. controlled the north, with the U.S. taking charge
of the south. In 1948, the division was made permanent with the
establishment of the separate regimes of North and South Korea. The
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) was established on
May 1, 1948, with Kim Il Sung as president.

Hoping to unify the Koreas under a single Communist government, the
North launched a surprise invasion of South Korea on June 25, 1950. In
the following days, the U.N. Security Council condemned the attack and
demanded an immediate withdrawal.

President Harry S. Truman ordered U.S. air and naval units into action to
enforce the U.N. order. The British government followed suit, and soon a
U.N. multinational command was set up to aid the South Koreans.

The North Korean invaders swiftly seized Seoul and surrounded the allied
forces in the peninsula's southeast corner near Pusan. In a desperate bid
to reverse the military situation, U.N. Commander Gen. Douglas MacArthur
ordered an amphibious landing at Inchon on Sept. 15 and routed the North
Korean army. MacArthur's forces pushed north across the 38th parallel,
approaching the Yalu River.

Prompted by this successful counter-offensive, Communist China entered the
war, forcing the U.N. troops into a headlong retreat. Seoul was lost again,
then regained; ultimately the war stabilized near the 38th parallel but
dragged on for two years while negotiations took place. An armistice was
agreed to on July 27, 1953.

By early 1994 tensions had mounted over international inspection of North
Korea's nuclear sites. Kim Il Sung's death on July 8, 1994 introduced a
period of uncertainty, as his son, Kim Jong-Il assumed the leadership
mantle. Negotiations over the country's suspected atomic weapons dragged
on, but an agreement was reached in June 1995 which included a provision
for providing the North with a South Korean nuclear reactor.

The nuclear crises that characterized the mid-1990s were overshadowed when
famine struck the nation's 24 million inhabitants. Two years of floods were
followed by severe droughts in 1997 and 1998, causing devastating crop
failures. Although international relief programs saved many people, the
situation was still considered serious in 1998, with aid agencies warning
that North Korea's nationalized food distribution program had virtually
shut down, forcing many people to rely on bark and wild plants to sustain
themselves. The severity of the famine continued in 1999. Because of lack
of fuel and machinery parts, and weather conditions that have encouraged
parasites, only 10% of North Korea's rice fields have been worked. Despite
the staggering food crisis, hermetic North Korea remains one of the world's
few remaining hard-line communist regimes.

In Sept. 1998 North Korea launched a test missile over Japan, claiming it
was simply a scientific satellite. This launch alarmed Japan and much of the
rest of the world about North Korea's intentions regarding reentry into the
nuclear arms race. In 1999, North Korea agreed to allow the United States
to conduct ongoing inspections of a suspected nuclear development site,
Kumchangri, which North Korea admits has been devised for "a sensitive
military purpose." In exchange, the U.S. would increase food aid and
initiate a program for bringing potato production to the country.

14.0 Korean Martial Arts Organizations

African Taekwondo Union (WTF)
PO Box 61002
Nairobi, Kenya
American Hapkido Association
157 Cambridge Street
Feeding Hills, Massachusetts 01030

American Taekwondo Association
6210 Baseline Road
Little Rock, Arkansas=A072209
Asian Taekwondo Union (WTF)
c/o Kyungwon University
San 65 Bokjung-dong, Sujung-gu
Sungnam City
Kyonggi-do 461-701
American Tang Soo Do Association
388B Eastern Ave
Unit 3
Malden, Massachusetts  02148
FAX: 781-324-9136
British Taekwondo Control Board (WTF)
11 Hassocks Hedge
Banbury Lane
Northampton, United Kingdom NN4-9QA
British United Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF)
58 Wiltshire Lane
Eastcote, Pinner
Middleessex, United Kingdom HA5-2LU
Canadian International Taekwon-Do Federation
4265 Papineau Ave.
Montreal, Quebec Canada
Chang Moo Kwan Headquarters
Soon Bae Kim
President of Chang Moo Kwan
#54-14 Sangwangshipri-Dong
Seoul, Republic of Korea
FAX: 82-2-2281-5931
Choson Do Society, The
"The Way of the Morning Calm"
Keepers of the Art and System of Choson Do
Michael A. Atamian, Doju
Benson, North Caroline, USA
Confederacao Brasileira de Taekwondo (WTF)
Rua Voluntarios da Patria
Cep. 22.270-010-Botafogo
Rio de Janeiro
Deutsche Taekwondo Union (WTF)
Luisenstr. 3
90762 Furth
FAX: 49-911-9748889
European Han Mu Do Association
Udenseweg 8
5405 PA Uden
The Netherlands
FAX: 31-413-330214
European Sin Moo Hapkido Association
Badenerstr. 156 b
800 Zurich, Switzerland
0041-1-242-97 65
European Taekwondo Union (WTF)
PO Box 37
7570 AA Oldenzaal
The Netherlands
Federation Francaise de Taekwondo et Disciplines Associees (WTF)
Rue d'Arsonval
69330 Meyzieu
Federacion Chilena de Taekwondo (WTF)
Vicuna Mackenna 40 Oficina 12
Santiago, Chile
Federacion Mexicana de Taekwondo, Ltd (WTF)
Calle Incas #12 Altos 29
Entre Peru Y Hondurassalena Mixhuca
Col. Centro
C.P. 06010
World Haidong Gumdo Federation
211-1, Neugpyumg-ri, Opo-up,
Gwangju City, Gyunggi-do, Korea 464-892
Tel:031-714-4471~2 Fax:031-715-5433
Hong Kong Taekwondo Association (WTF)
Room 1014, Sports House
1 Stadium Path
So Kon Po, Causeway Bay
Hong Kong, China
India Taekwondo Federation of India (WTF)
RZ-85, Bhawanl Kunj
Pocket D-2, Vasant Kunj
New Delhi-110070
FAX: 91-11-689-9840
International Combat Hapkido Federation
22-C New Leicester Hwy. #173
Asheville, NC 28806
FAX: 828-683-1744
International Hapkido Alliance / Australian Hapkido Group
246 George Street
Liverpool NSW 2170
FAX: 612-9824-1767
International Hapkido Federation
Kyoung Ki Do
Yong In Sy
Bok Am Myoung
Ka Chang Ri 522-1
FAX: 82-31-334-4968
International Hapkido Federation (different from above)
3201 Santa Monica Blvd
Santa Monica, California 90404
International Hoshin-kido Hapkido Federation
359 A. Des Laurentides, Pont Viau, Laval,
Montreal, (Quebec), Canada
H7G 2T9
FAX: 450-662-2218
International Kongshin Hapkido Association
1017 S. Washington St.
Marion, IN 46953
International Modern Hapkido Federation
4460 Homestead Drive
Moscow, PA 18444
FAX: 570-842-3233
International Taekwondo Academy
World Taekwondo Headquarters
635, Yuksam-dong
Seoul 135-080, South Korea
FAX: 82-2-553-4728
International Taekwondo Council
3353 Bradshaw Road
Suite 201
Sacramento, California
International Taekwon-Do Federation
Drau Gasse 3
A-1210 Vienna, Austria
292-8475, 292-5509
International Tang Soo Do Federation
3955 Monroeville Blvd
Monroeville, Pennsylvania 15146
FAX: 412-373-5671
Irish Taekwondo Union (WTF)
14 Clontarf Road
Dublin 3
Rep. of Ireland
fax 353-1-8334453
Japan Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
Daisan-Nisshin Bldg, 12 floor
2-6-4, Shinjuku
Tokyo 160-0022, Japan
Jin Pal Hapkido Martial Arts Federation
1415 Albert St.
Regina, Saskatewan, Canada
Kong Shin Bup International
181 Gore Street
Sault Ste Marie, Ontario,  P6A 1M4
KoreAmerica TaeKwon-Do Union (KATU)
441 South Main St. #97
Manchester, Connecticut 06040
FAX: 860-649-1231
Korea Hapkido Association
Se-jong bldg. 202
7-1 Shin-Moon-ro
1-ka. Chong-ro-ku.
Seoul 110-061
FAX: 08-02-735-6662
Korea Hapkido Federation
18-11, Rung-dong
Seoul 143-847, Korea
FAX: 2-456-0953
Korea Judo Association
Room 504 Olympic Center
88 Oryoon-dong
Seoul 138-749, Korea
Korea Jungki Hapkido & Guhapdo Association
4th Floor Bek Kwang building
39-14 Samduk 1 Street Chung-Ku
Daegu City, Korea
Korea KiDo Association
122-2 Nam Yang Building 3000
Non Hyun Dong
Seoul, Korea
 or in Pusan,
3-35 Shin Chang Dong
Jung Gu
Pusan, Korea
Korea Kumdo Association
Room 505 Olympic Center
88 Oryoon-dong
Seoul 138-749, Korea
Korea Ssireum Organization
634-10 Yundang Builing, Sinsa-dong
Seoul 135-120, Korea
Korea Seoul City Mapooku Tae Kwon Do Association
Korean Soo Bahk Do Association
59-3 Nahnyoung-dong
Seoul 140-160, Korea

Korea Taekwondo Association
Room 607 Olympic Center
88 Oryoon-dong
Seoul 138-749, Korea
Korea Traditional Taekkyon Association
Chungju, Korea

Korea Tae Kwon Do Moo Duk Kwan Association
195-1 Mapo-dong
Seoul, Korea
FAX: 02-717-6565

Korea Taekkyon Association
#629-15 Shinsa-dong
Seoul, Korea
FAX: 82-2-542-3539

Korea TangSooDo MooDukKwan Society
475 W. Silver Star Road
Ocoee, Florida 34761

World Taekwondo Headquarters
635, Yuksam-dong
Seoul 135-080, Korea
FAX: 82-2-553-4728

National Korean Martial Arts Association
181 Gore Street
Sault Ste Marie, Ontario,  P6A 1M4

National Tang Soo Do Federation
PO Box 26265
Dayton, Ohio 45426

New Zealand Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
P.O.Box 14-540
Panmure, Auckland
New Zealand
FaX: 64-9-570-4311

Pan American Taekwondo Union (WTF)
440 S. Washington St.
Falls Church, Virginia 22046
FAX: 703-536-3223

Philippine Taekwondo Association (WTF)
Rizal Memorial Sports Complex
Vito Cruz Street, Malate
Metro-Manila, P.O.Box 2272
FAX: 63-2-817-7235

Polish Taekwon-do Association (ITF)
Nowowiejskiego 1/38
20-880 Lublin

Polish Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
Reymonta 35
60-791 Poznan
48-61-8663410 (both phone & fax)

Polish Taekwon-do Union (GTF)
P.O. Box 572
50-950 Wroclaw 2
FAX: 48-71-3101642

Russian Taekwondo Union (WTF)
8, Luzhnetskaya nab.
Moscow 119871, Russia

South African Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
P.O.Box 61418
Vaalpark, 9573
South Africa

Taekwondo Association of China (WTF)
9, Tiyuguan Road
Beijing 100763, People's Republic of China

Taekwondo Australia Inc.
24 Orion St. Vermont, 3133
Melbourne. VIC.

Taekwondo World Foundation
1313 Dolley Madison Blvd
Suite 104
McLean, Virginia 22101

United States Chung Do Kwan Association
PO Box 1474
Lakeland, Florida 33802

United States Hapkido Federation
P.O. Box 177
Bloomington, Indiana  47401

United States Korean Martial Arts Federation
291 Highway 51, E-10
Ridgeland, Mississippi 39157
FAX: 601-898-9687

United States National Taekwondo Federation
9956 W. Grand Ave.
Franklin Park, Illinois 60131
FAX: 847-451-1333

United States Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation
20 Milburn Ave
Springfield, New Jersey

United States Taekwondo Association
220 East 86th Street
New York, New York 10028

United States Taekwon-do Federation  (ITF)
6801 W. 117th Ave
Broomfield, Colorado 80020

United States Taekwondo Union  (WTF)
One Olympic Plaza
Suite 104C
Colorado Spgs, Colorado 80909

United States Yudo Association
PO Box 620533
Orlando, Florida  32862-0533
FAX: 407-855-2620

Universal Tae Kwon Do Brotherhood
2427 Buckingham Road
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
313-971-7040  M-F 10AM to 5PM, Eastern timezone

Venezuelan Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
10455 SW 96 Street
Miami, FL 33176
FAX: 1-305-598-9543

World Dang Soo Do Union
SoungTan Moo Duk Kwan Dojang
Soungtan, Korea
FAX: 011-82-31-666-2480

World Hai Dong Gumdo Federation
Republic of Korea
Kyungki Do
Sangnam Si
Pundang Ku
Chongcha Dong 54-1

World Hapkido Federation
PO Box 15523
Los Angeles, California 90015

World Hapkido Games Federation
KaeBongDong 170-41
Seoul 152-090, Korea

World Han Mu Do Association
4816 Jamestown Ave.
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808

World Hwa Rang Do Association
8200 Firestone Blvs
Downey, California 90241

World KiDo Federation
36472 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont, California 94536
FAX: 510-744-0266

World Kuk Sool Association
20275 FM-2920
Tomball, Texas 77375
FAX: 281-255-2548

World Kum Do Association
1207 East Locust Street
Davenport, IA 52803

World Moo Duk Kwan Tang Soo Do Federation
524 Wilbur St.
Brandon, Florida 33511

World Sin Moo Hapkido Association
20 Waverly Place
Trenton, New Jersey

World Song Moo Kwan Association
2913 Lyndale Avenue S
Minneapolis, MN 55408
FAX: 612-823-1433

World Tae Kwon Do Association
4th Floor
47 West 14th Street
New York, New York 10003

World Taekwondo Federation
4th Fl., JoYang Building
113, Samseong-dong, Gangnam-gu
Seoul, Korea 135-090
Tel: 82 2 566 2505 --- 82 2 557 5446
Fax: 82 2 553 4728

World Tang Soo Do Association
709 Oregon Ave.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19148
FAX: 215-336-2121

World Tang Soo Do Union
see World Dang Soo Do Union

WTF Taekwondo Association of Canada (WTF)
1300 Carling Ave
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K1Z-7L2

* 15.0 The people that made this FAQ possible

This FAQ is not a one person effort, but the combined effort
of many.  Many thanks to those below that made this FAQ possible.

Ali M. Al-Nasser  
Brad Appleton  
Michael A. Atamian  
Anthony Boyd  
Dakin Burdick  
Ian A. Cyrus   
Ross Deforrest  
Jay Fallik  
Carsten Jorgensen  
Steve Kincade  
Pat Macken  
Barry Nauta  
Randy Pals  
OEyvind Saeter  
Lorelei Senna  
Holcombe Thomas  
Rudy Timmerman  
Hawaii Glenn  
(sorry if I left anyone out)
Some answers given may reflect personal biases of the author and the
FAQ's contributors.  The answers contained herein pertain to discussions
on The_Dojang email distribution list and are by no means exhaustive.
Copyright 1997-2017: Ray Terry, Martial Arts Resource, California Taekwondo and Hapkido
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License