Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Korean Martial Arts (KMA)

Version: 1.3g              Date: 26 May 2002
Brought to you by the Martial Arts Resource
(http://MartialArtsResource.com) and California Taekwondo and Hapkido
Ray Terry, P.O. Box 110841, Campbell, CA  95011-0841
This FAQ was created to be informative.  There are no
intentions for it to be offensive to any style or person.
This FAQ is a compilation of information acquired over the years from
various sources, but it is FAR from complete. Any corrections or additions
that are submitted will be carefully considered. Send them to address
and include "KMA FAQ INFO" as the subject heading.

* =====================================
* =====================================
* 1 - Introduction
* 2 - What is a martial art?
* 3 - How do I choose a school?
* 4 - Should children study martial arts?
* 5 - Belief systems
* 6 - Rankings/Color belt systems
* 7 - Korean martial arts glossary
* 8 - Bibliography
* 9 - Sources of electronic information
* 10 - Sources of equipment and material
* 11 - Different Korean arts and styles
* 12 - TaeKwonDo Olympic sparring rules
* 13 - Brief History of Korea
* 14 - Korean Martial Arts Organizations
* 15 - The people that made this FAQ possible
* =====================================

* 1.0 Introduction
This FAQ is not intended to be a martial arts bible, but to give some
help to those that are looking for a place to start, or those more
experienced that would like to know more about some different style,
have a particular doubt, etc.
Please note that this is not the "Absolute Truth" but rather an
attempt to give clear and basic information about Korean martial arts.
Your suggestions, opinions, and additions are welcome; send e-mail per
the above instructions.
* 2.0 What is a martial art?
A martial art can be defined as a system of techniques, physical and mental
exercises developed as an effective means for self-defense and offense,
both unarmed and with the use of weapons.
The origin and history of martial arts is a controversial issue.  We can see
signs of martial arts in Greece, Egypt, Korea, Africa, Japan, China, Okinawa,
Thailand, as well as other cultures.  There is a clear trail leading from the
Southern China regions up to Korea, Okinawa and Japan.  The details before
that, and the exact details of that transfer, are greatly debated by
historians and martial artists.

* 3.0 How do I choose a school?
A couple of things that are important parts to look at in the process of
choosing a school:
   (1)  The environment where you'll learn and train
   (2)  The people that will be your partners
   (3)  The instructor
   (4)  The logistics of the school
(1)     The environment where you will learn and train
Don't get impressed by the size of the place- just be sure that you feel
"ok" in there.
Also don't necessarily be impressed by huge number of trophies.  They may
indicate a very successful competitive school (if that is an aspect you are
interested in) or they could be all show.  Check carefully.
If you are not allowed to watch any classes, you may not want to invest
your time and money.  Without seeing a class you will not be able to get a
good feel for the school.
Ask questions- don't worry about looking stupid or asking the "wrong"
question.  They are going to be teaching and training you- you want to get
any concerns or considerations you have out before you commit to anything.
If you feel bullied or threatened in any manner, look somewhere else.
(2)     The people that will be your partners
Watch some classes (without participating), then ask to participate-
see if the behavior of the students changes by the fact that there is a new
person in their class.
What follows is a quick and dirty check list, to which you can add your own
points, based on what you consider important.  Remember: these questions
and suggestions are just guidelines, not hard and fast rules. There will
always be exceptions.
   - How good are the students?
This is more of a measure of the quality of the students as students than
their skill at martial arts.  See if you can picture yourself with these
people.  Are they attentive, respectful, interested in being there? Those
are all good signs...
   - Is there a mix of upper and lower ranks?
This is not always obvious in the styles without belt rankings, etc. It is
generally a good sign if advanced, intermediate and beginning students are
practicing together.  Check the approach the higher ranked students take to
you- their help will probably be very important in your advancement in the
Art you choose.
Some schools have classes separated by rank though.  Ask.
   -Is there a mix in the type of people in the class?
Although this doesn't necessarily mean anything if it is not present, it is
a good sign if there is a mixture of males and females, older and younger
people in the class.   It is a pointer to the efficiency of the Art if it
can teach a wide variety of people together.
   - Do they move the way you would like to?
This will give you some sense of what you can achieve.  Look to the senior
students and see if they move the way you want to move.
   - Do they help one another?
In a small class this may not apply, but in larger classes it is a good
sign if the senior students support and assist the junior students. This
kind of personal attention will aid you greatly in your training.
   - Do the senior students seem fit and relaxed?
This will give you a sense of the atmosphere of the school.  If the senior
students are uptight, nervous, unfit, out of shape, or unhappy, it may be a
sign to move on.  However, do not be put off by a single occurrence, i.e.
because on THAT day the senior student was in a poor mood.  It should at
least prompt you to look carefully though...
   - How common are injuries?
As most martial arts involve vigorous physical activity and contact,
injuries will occur.  However, if injuries are very common and/or
serious, there is likely a problem in how training is supervised, and you
will probably want to look elsewhere.  It will be difficult to tell what
the frequency/severity of injuries in the class is in one or two visits.
Ask the instructor.
(3)     The Instructor
        -You'll need some basic trust in the individual, as a beginning.
The instructor is the person who is going to be guiding your development as
a martial artist.   You need to feel comfortable with him or her, and feel
secure in receiving instruction from them. If you have some unease or
personality conflict with the instructor(s) you might want to look
   - Do the students get personalized attention?
This will be a good judge of how valuable your time will be.  If there is a
good amount of instructor to student attention there will be more value for you.
   - Does the instructor differentiate between forms and function?
Another good indication is to find out if the instructor(s) differentiates 
between form and function.  In other words do they do it "because it looks
good" or "because it works."  This may not apply if you are looking for a
martial art as a performance art or as an exercise (though then you want to
look at the efficacy of their exercises...)
   - Does the instructor(s) differentiate between tournament and self-defense?
As above, your reaction to this question's answer will depend on what your
goals are.  However, there is general agreement that tournament training
and self-defense training, while highly related, are different. If the
instructor does not differentiate the two- that may be a danger sign!
   - Are adjustments made for students of differing body types and
Another good sign is if the instructor adjusts the training of his or her
student's physical realities:  telling a slow person to work contact, a
fast person to work ranges, a heavy person to work leverage, a light person
to work speed, or, conversely, concentrating on their weak areas to
(4)     The logistics of the School
This is an important element to be clear about.  You don't want to commit
to a school if you can't afford it.  It is impossible to address what a
reasonable price would be here, because the benefits offered, the local
economy, the quality of instruction, and the amount of instructor time are
all variables in the equation.
Find out if there are extra charges for going up in rank, find out if there
are organizational dues, tournament fees, mat fees, etc.
But do not be upset when a martial arts instructor charges money- they need
to eat and have a place to stay.
If you are intending to spend a lot of time at the school you want it to be
accessible, and convenient enough for you to get their after work, on weekends, etc.
Another thing you want to be clear on is when you can go to the school and
when classes are.  Some schools are open almost all the time and have lots
of classes.  In some schools you can only come when an official class is
being held. An open school is usually better for obvious reasons- convenience,
practice time, access to mats, etc.
   -Commitments and Promises
This is an important thing to know about any school you will be joining. Be
very clear on what they will expect of you and what you expect of them.
Some teachers want to teach only people who are willing to commit to them
and their style, some are willing to introduce you to their style and let
you dabble, some will teach you as long as you show up. None of these are
intrinsically better or worse, but you want to know where they are coming
from so you and they are not surprised.
Find out if you are required to attend classes, find out about being late,
find out what the policy is on school rules of behavior and etiquette.
Find out how you are supposed to interact with the teacher and other
students.  There are many styles for all these things so make sure you find
out.  The easiest way is to ask these questions.
There may be other questions you want to look at and specific questions you
have about an instructor, school, organization, or style you are looking
at. Know the questions you want answered and you will find the perfect
school for you!
* 4.0 Should children study martial arts?

In general, yes.  Some of the possible positives would be control of
aggressiveness, instilling self-respect and self-control, as well as
The style that a child should take is a totally different question, and is
directly influenced by the style, if any, of the parents.  It will of
course be convenient if the child can practice with, or at least in the
same school as, the parents.  The major issue with children in the martial
arts is the integrity and trustworthiness of the teacher and the school.
The joints and connective tissues of children are more vulnerable to injury
than those of adults.  Keep this in mind when selecting a style and school
for a child, and discuss it with the instructor.  Schools which allow
aggressive joint locks to be applied to children or don't train them to
refrain from snapping/hyper-extending elbows on strikes and knees on kicks
should be avoided.  (It is for this same reason that good baseball coaches
will not allow young pitchers to throw pitches which require hard snapping
of the arm - like curve balls).  Throws, however, are quite different; the
small size of children makes them naturals for arts which require falling
* 5.0 Belief systems
Some martial arts have philosophical and/or religious roots or
associations, e.g. with Buddhism, Taoism, or ?.  Thus, it is natural
for people who are considering a particular art to wonder if it is
compatible with their own philosophy or religion.
Normally it is not considered ethical for an Instructor to try to impose
his own views on his students.  However, the philosophical aspects of
some arts may still be present in the required training to the extent
that some potential students would be offended by it.  As with so many
other aspects of martial arts, it depends on the art and even more heavily
on the instructor.  So, be sure to watch for this aspect when you visit
a school that you are interested in.  Have a conversation with the
instructor about it, and watch how he/she interacts with his/her students.
* 6.0 Rankings/Color belt systems

Many arts have a ranking system.  A typical ranking from beginner to
most experienced master is: 10th gup, 9th gup, ..., 2nd gup, 1st gup,
1st dan, 2nd dan, ..., 10th dan.  "gup" (or "kup") is Korean for grade.
"Dan" ranks will typically wear a black belt.
That being said, do not put too much stock in rankings, and put even less
in belt color.  Belt colors are HIGHLY dependent on the art, school, and
instructor.  Some arts don't have any belts.  Some have only white and
black.  Some have white, brown, and black.  Some have a rainbow.  Some
instructors hand out rank/belts like candy, others are very stingy.  A
given color will frequently signify different ranks in different arts.
Rather than rank or belt color, what will determine an individual's skill
are how long and how intensely they have studied, the quality of
instruction they have received, and (to a lesser extent) their "natural" ability.
A brief history of gup/kyu/dan (kyu is the Japanese equivalent of gup)
ranking systems and belts, contributed by Steve Gombosi (sog@rainbow.rmii.com)
Before Jigoro Kano invented Judo, there was no kyu/dan ranking system.
Kano invented it when he awarded "shodan" to two of his senior students
(Saito and Tomita) in 1883. Even then, there was no external
differentiation between yudansha (dan ranks) and mudansha (those who hadn't
yet attained dan ranking). Kano apparently began the custom of having his
yudansha wear black obis in 1886. These obis weren't the belts karateka and
judoka wear today - Kano hadn't invented the judogi (uniform) yet, and his
students were still practicing in kimono. They were the wide obi still worn
with formal kimono. In 1907, Kano introduced the modern gi and its modern
obi, but he still only used white and black.
Karateka in Okinawa didn't use any sort of special uniform at all in the
old days. The kyu/dan ranking system, and the modern karategi (modified judogi)
were first adopted by Karate-do founder G.Funakoshi in an effort to encourage
karate's acceptance by the Japanese. He awarded the first "shodan" ranks given
in karate to Tokuda, Otsuka, Akiba, Shimizu, Hirose, Gima, and Kasuya on April
10, 1924. The adoption of the kyu/dan system and the adoption of a standard
uniform based on the judogi were 2 of the 4 conditions which the Dai-Nippon
Butokukai required before recognizing karate as a "real" martial art. If
you look at photographs of Okinawan karateka training in the early part of
this century, you'll see that they were training in their everyday clothes,
or (!) in their underwear.
Most Korean arts have ranking/belt color systems that were adopted from the
Japanese arts.
* 7.0 Korean martial arts glossary
A Summary of Korean Terminology for TaeKwonDo
compiled by Brad Appleton (bradapp@enteract.com)
[with minor edits by Ray Terry]
   This document is an attempt to compile a list of Korean terminology
   used in the study of TaeKwonDo.  In years past, the terminology used
   was based upon Chinese.  Since then however, most styles have "upgraded"
   to use a more "modern" Korean terminology that is more "in sync" with
   the semantics of the Korean language.  Wherever possible, I have tried
   to use this "new" (more modern) terminology.  [older terms appear in
   Obviously, the Korean language is not written using the Roman alphabet,
   so all the spellings you see here are mere approximations and will not
   necessarily be the same spellings that some of you are used to seeing.
   Counting to 10 in Korean
        1    hanah
        2    dool
        3    set
        4    net
        5    dasot
        6    yosot (pronounced more like "yawsot")
        7    ilgop
        8    yodol (sort of like "yawdol")
        9    ahop
        10  yool (or "yeol" or "yol")
   The stress in "hanah", "dasot", and "yosot" is on the first syllable,
   in "ilgop", "yodol", and "ahop" on the second.  In counting cadence in
   TaeKwonDo, this is so emphasized that the other syllable frequently
   almost disappears (e.g., "han", "das", "yos", "lgop", "hop", etc.).
   The Korean names for 1st-10th
   These are not cardinal numbers (first, second, etc.).  They are another
   numbering system.  The numbers hanah, dool, etc. are most frequently
   used when you're talking about something that's counted; il, i, etc.
   for other things (which usually correspond to cardinal numbers). For
   example, a first degree black belt would be an "il dan".
   These numbers are:
        1    il ("eel")
        2    i ("ee")
        3    sam ("sahm")
        4    sa ("sah")
        5    o ("oh")
        6    ryuk ("yook")
        7    chil
        8    pal
        9    ku
       10   ship
   The final 'l' in "chil" and "pal" isn't rounded, like an American 'l' ....
   it's a much shorter sound, sort of like the initial 'l' in "let", but
   even shorter.  It's not like the 'l' in "ball".
   When pronouncing the word "ship", you MUST NOT emphasize the "sh" sound.
   It's almost more like "sip" with a sort of a lisp.  If you pronounce it
   like "sh" in "shell", you will be talking about sexual intercourse.
Other Korean Terminology
        sohgi                 stance
        {cha see              stance}
        anjun sohgi           sitting stance
        ap sohgi              walking stance
        ap kubi               front bent knee stance
        {chungul chasee       frong bent knee stance}
        bom sohgi             cat stance
        chagi sohgi           kicking stance
        dwi kubi              back stance
        {hugul chasee         back stance}
        juchoom sohgi         horse stance
        {keema chasee         horse stance}
        kima sohgi            riding stance
        mot sohgi             fighting stance
        onnoon sohgi          sitting stance
        kibon junbi sohgi     ready stance
        dong yuk sohgi        dynamic stance
        cha yun sohgi         natural stance
        oo                    right
        joa                   left
        ap                    front
        an                    inner
        bakkat                outer
        baro                  reverse
        bitureo               twisting
        dwi                   back
        gamya                 stepping
        uro                   moving in a particular direction
                              (e.g. "ap uro gamya" - stepping forward)
        anuro                 inward
        bakuro                outward
        twim yah              jumping
        dollyo                turning
        dora                  to turn
        dolmyo                spinning
        mee kul myu           sliding
        chagi                 kick (or snap kick)
        cha olligi            stretching kick
        ap chagi              front kick
        bandal chagi          45' roundhouse kick
        pyojuk chagi          crescent kick
        dwi chagi             back kick
        dollyo chagi          roundhouse kick
        bandae dollyo chagi   reverse round kick ("hook kick")
        dwi dollyo chagi      hook kick (back round kick)
        nakko chagi           hooking kick
        naeryo chagi          ax kick
        an chagi              inside ax kick
        bakkat chagi          outside ax kick
        yup chagi             side kick
        bitureo chagi         twisting kick
        mireo chagi           push kick
        twio chagi            jump kick
        {ea dan chagi         jump kick}
        huryo chagi           thrashing kick
   Hand Attacks
        chirugi               punch
        chigi                 strike
        {kongkyuk             attack}
        sonnal                knife-edge
        joomok                fist
        doong joomuk          back fist
        yup joomuk            side fist
        me joomuk             hammer fist
        sanbadak chigi        palmhand strike
        sontong chigi         backhand strike
        sonnal mok chigi      overhead knife-edge strike
        doo bun chirugi       double punch
        sae bun chirugi       triple punch
        kwon su chirugi       spearfinger thrust
        sonkut chirugi        finger thrust
        sewo chirugi          vertical punch
        dollyo chirugi        round punch
        dwijubo chirugi       upset punch
        olliyo chirugi        upward punch
        bandae chirugi        front punch
        baro chirugi          reverse front punch
        makki                 block
        bakkat makki          outer forearm block
        an makki              inner forearm block
        hecho makki           double forearm block
        anuro makki           inward block
        bakuro makki          outward block
        arae makki            low block
        gutjha makki          nine-shaped block
        daebi makki           guarding block
        cho kyo makki         rising block
        olgul makki           high block
        momtong makki         middle block
        sonnal makki          knife-edge block
        wesanteul makki       mountain block
        charrot               attention
        junbi                 ready
        dorah                 about face
        elosoh                stand
        keuman                stop
        gooky a hyanghayoh    face the flag
        hai san               class dismissed
        jonglee               line up
        kyenyae               bow
        anja                  sit
        pah ro                return to ready position
        pal bah kwah          switch your stance (switch sides)
        koo ryung op see      in your own time
        seijak                begin
        shiuh                 relax
   Body Parts
        arae                  lower body (low section)
        {ha dan               lower body}
        bahl                  feet
        dahlee                leg
        eep                   mouth
        palkup                elbow
        gi                    ear
        joomok                fist
        ko                    nose
        mok                   neck
        molee                 head
        momtong               middle body (middle section)
        {choong dan           middle body}
        mooloop               knee
        myung chi             solar plexus
        noon                  eye
        ouka                  shoulder
        pahl                  arm
        palmak                forearm
        sonn                  hand
        olgul                 face & head high
        {san dan              face & head high}
        kyorugi               (free) sparring
        {daeryun              sparring}
        hanbeon kyorugi       one step sparring
        {il sooshik daeryun   one step sparring}
        doobeon kyorugi       two step sparring
        {yi sooshik dayryun   two step sparring}
        sebeon kyorugi        three step sparring
        {sahm sooshik daeruyn three step sparring}
        anja kyorugi          sitting position sparring
        tzalbeun-khal kyorugi knife sparringk
        ban ja yu kyorugi     semi free sparring
        danjang               fix
        dhee                  belt
        dobok                 uniform
        dojang                school (house of discipline)
        gup                   grade
        dan                   degree
        jang                  a page (similar to a page)
        joncha                every one
        kihap                 yell
        kahm sa ham nee da    thank you
        jer maenyo            (you're) welcome
        mukyum                meditation
        onyonghe asayo        hello
        onyonghe gasayo       goodbye
        pil sung              certain victory
        poomsae               form (pronounced "poom-say")
        hyung                 form
        sah bum nim           master (or senior instructor)
        jung sin yuk          mental strength (martial art spirit)
        yung suk              combination
        Tai Geuk Gi           the Korean flag

* 8.0 Bibliography
   The Original Martial Arts Encyclopedia: Tradition, History,
   Pioneers_.  Corcorn/Farkas.  Pro-Action Publishing.
   ISBN Number:  0-9615126-3-6
   Go Rin No Sho---The Book of the Five Rings_.  Miyamoto Musashi
   This book can also be found "on-line" at:
   Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts_.  Draeger & Smith
   Publisher: Kodansha International ISBN Number: 0-87011-436-0
   ISBN Number in Japan: 4-7700-0913-5
   The Art Of War_.  Sun Tzu
   This book can also be found "on-line" at:
  Zen in the Art of Archery_.  Eugen Herrigel
   The Bible of Karate: Bubishi_.  translated with commentary by
   Patrick McCarthy.
   Okinawan Karate_.  Mark Bishop
   The Student's Handbook_.  Frederick Lovret
   Zen in the Martial Arts_.  Joe Hyams
   The Martial Artist's Book of Five Rings_.  Translation by Hanshi

   Steve Kaufman, Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc., 1994.
   Hwarang Do_. 3 volumes, Dr. Joo Bang Lee
   Moo Duk Kwan_. 2 volumes, Richard Chun
   The Fighting Weapons of Korean Martial Arts_.  In Hyuk Suh
   The Hapkido Bible_.  Dr. He-Young Kimm
   Hapkido II_.  Dr. He-Young Kimm
   Han Mu Do_.  Dr. He-Young Kimm
   Hapkido: Korean art of self-defense_.  Bong Soo Han
   Korean Hapkido_.  Kwang Sik Myung
   Hapkido: Korean Art of Self-defense_.  Scott Shaw
   Hapkido: The Integrated Fighting Art_.  Robert Spear
   Tae Kwon Do: Secrets of Korean Karate_.  S.Henry Cho
   Taekwondo Text Book_.  Kukkiwon
   Background Readings in Tae Kwon Do & Martial Arts_.  Daeshik Kim
   History of Moo Duk Kwan_.  Hwang Kee
   Soo Bahk Do Tang Soo Do_. 2 volumes, Hwang Kee
   Taekwon-Do_.  Hong Hi Choi
   A Guide to Korean Characters_. Grant
* 9.0 Sources of electronic information
For those on the World Wide Web, see the URL:
Korean Martial Arts Mailing List:
Do you practice Korean martial arts?  e.g. SinMoo Hapkido, Tang Soo Do,
HwaRang Do, Kuk Sool Won, Taekwondo, TaekKyon, Hapkido, Soo Bahk Do, Kumdo,
Yudo, Ship Pal Ki, Yu Sool, Kong Soo Do, Kung Jung Moo sool, HaeDong Kumdo,
Kyuktooki, Hanmudo, etc.
Come practice with us at the "The_Dojang", 9 years of continuous operation.
The_Dojang is a 1000 member e-mail distribution list for the discussion
of Korean martial arts.
The list is managed by "Mailman".  To subscribe to The_Dojang
go to the URL;
Brought to you by the Martial Arts Resource, MartialArtsResource.com.
Pil Seung!
************************************************************* * 10.0 Sources of equipment and material
Academy of Karate Martial Arts Supplies
405 Black Horse Pike
Haddon Heights, NJ 08035
Asian World of Martial Arts
917-21 Arch St.
Philadelphia, PA  19107
BLT Supply Inc.
35-01 Queens Boulevard
Long Island City, N.Y. 11101-1720
(718) 392-5671 or (800)-322-2860 FAX:(718) 392-5705
Mail Order * Retail * Wholesale
Bugei Trading Company
California S and P Inc.
10545-B San Pablo Ave.; El Cerrito, CA 94530; USA
Century Martial Art Supply, Inc.
1705 National Blvd.; Midwest City, OK 73110; USA
Chris Nickolas American Arts Karate
Martial arts supplies (wholesale/retail)
4858 S. Main St.
Akron, Ohio 44319
Internet: mark.juszczec@bellhow.com
Defense Arts, Inc.
P.O. Box 1028; Smyrna, GA 30081; USA
East West Markets Exchange, Inc.
5533 North Broadway; Chicago, IL 60640; USA
Far East Books
2029 North Park St.
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada  B3K 4B2
902-422-8142  FAX 902-422-1998
Internet fareast@fox.nstn.ca
Chinese Martial Arts, Religions, and Healing Disciplines; catalogue
Honda Martial Arts Supply Co.
61 West 23rd St.; New York, NY 10010; USA
800-USA-NYNY or 212-620-4050
I & I Sports
1524 W. 178th St.
Gardena, CA  90248
Inter Sports
1 Bon Ji. Ulchiro 7-ga
(under the Baseball stadium)
Chung-gu, Seoul, Korean
FAX: 82-2-2237-2238
Kim Pacific Trading Company
4141 Business Center Drive
Kiyota Company
2326 North Charles St.; Baltimore, MD 21219; USA
800-783-2232 or 410-366-8275
Martial Arts Supplies Co., Inc.
10711 Venice Blvd.; Los Angles, CA 90034-6294; USA
Macho Products
10045 102nd Terrace
Sebastian, FL 32978
e-mail macho@bb.iu.net
Moo Sool Sa 
1 Bon Ji. Ulchiro 7-ga
Dongdaemun Football Stadium
Chung-gu, Seoul, Korea
FAX: 82-2-2237-9993
e-mail: moosool@chollian.dacom.co.kr
Musashi Martial Arts
1842 S. Grand Ave.; Santa Ana, CA 92705; USA
PAIS Enterprises
P.O. Box 518, Miliken Post Office; Milliken, Ontario, LOH 1K0, CANADA
S & P of New York Budo, Inc.
P.O. Box 2; Depew, NY 14043; USA
Saghafi Enterprises
1604 Niagara Falls Blvd.; Tonawanda, NY 14150; USA
Sang Moo Sa
16631 Bellflower Blvd.
Bellflower, CA  90706
Top Brands
Box 51331; New Orleans, LA 70151; USA
World-Wide Martial Arts Supply
P.O. Box 3132
Bethlehem, PA  18017
* 11.0 Different Korean arts and styles
Important note:  This information is true to the best of the knowledge
of the author.  Not all will agree with some, perhaps even most, of
what follows.
11.1) Cha Yon Ryu
Intro:  An eclectic, fairly new martial art.
The Cha Yon Ryu ("Natural Way") system was founded in 1968 by Kim Soo of
Houston, Texas, who remains Director of the system.  Grand Master Kim, who
holds upper dan rankings in both tae kwon do and hapkido chose to
incorporate into the Cha Yon Ryu system techniques and forms from several
different martial arts.
Tae Kwon Do contributes kicking techniques, strong stances and direct,
linear strikes and blocks, as does Shotokan Karate.  With the study of
movements from Okinawan Te, the Cha Yon Ryu practitioner starts to add
techniques with some angularity to his/her repertoire, and eventually
progresses to the fluid, circular movements of Ch'uan Fa Kung Fu.  Hapkido
is the martial art from which are drawn defenses against chokes, grabs and
armed attacks, as well as various throwing and falling techniques.
The Dojang Hun  (Training Hall Oath)
Seek perfection of character 
Live the way of truth
Be faithful
Respect your seniors
Refrain from violent behavior
11.2) Hai Dong Gumdo (Haedong Kumdo)
Intro:  A martial art based on the study of the sword.
Origin:    Korea
Hai Dong Gumdo (Korean Way of the Sword - Hai Dong refers to the East Sea
and was the Chinese way of referring to the Korean Peninsula) draws its
techniques from many areas. Most commonly referenced of course is the
Muyedotobongi. Some techniques are thought to have originated in the 3rd
century. Others are clearly the result of dedicated and serious attempts to
make the style accessible to modern students.
Depending on the school of Hai Dong Gumdo the uniform will vary from
the padded jacket and split skirt (hakima) most commonly seen in
Japanese sword styles (Kendo, Kenjutsu, Aikido) to a durable hanbok-style
dobok. At third gup the student will generally be asked to begin practice
with a metal training sword (ka-gum) to prepare for the weight, balance and
danger of using live weapons after first dan. The average weight of a
mog-gum is 500 grams. The average weight of a ka-gum is 1.3 kg. Real swords
(chin-gom) vary in weight by style and fittings but average at 1.1 or 1.2
kg. There is no sparring in a competitive sense and only dan ranks practice
cutting objects. Typical objects to employ in cutting drills are bamboo
poles and rice stalk sheaves. Bamboo simulates cutting bone while the sheaves
simulate flesh. Sometimes the two are combined. Classes are quite formal.
The art itself is very circular and flowing. As one progresses varying
levels of acrobatic maneuvers are presented in accordance with ability. It
is very visually stimulating - moreso when one begins to understand the
deadly power in every movement.


Training involves solo drills and study of forms (gum-pup). There are 12
forms below black belt with a 13th form learned for the first dan test
itself. This final form for the black belt candidate is very dynamic but
still tailored to the students' abilities and incorporates all of the
elements of the preceding 12 forms. For those who are interested there is
often the chance to develop partner sparring drills but no contact or
competition based sparring occurs. It is simply too dangerous. Sparring is
left to the confines of the sport of kendo. In addition to the forms there
are key-point drills, candle snuffing exercises to develop control,
breath-based meditation of various forms and basic self-defense training. A
student will learn basic and effective methods to counter punches and kicks,
will learn tumbling and safe falling practices as well as gain an
understanding of basic punches and kicks as well. High or acrobatic kicks
are not a part of the curriculum.

Some Online Resources:


An Offline Resource for speakers of Korean:

Telephone: 82((0)342) 714-4471 (4472)
Fax           : 715-5433

World Hai Dong Gumdo Federation
Song-nam Si
Pundang Ku
Jongja Dong 54-1
South Korea
11.3) Han Mu Do
Intro:  An eclectic martial art somewhat similar to Hapkido.
Origin:    Korea
Following World War II, martial arts in Korea began to boom
again. In order to understand today's Korean martial arts history, one must
first understand evolution of Korea martial arts since 1945.

There have been three stages involved in the evolution of Korean martial
arts. The first stage is known as the Pioneer Stage (1945-1960). Many Korean
martial arts masters, some of whom trained overseas, returned to Korea and
intermingled with masters who had remained in Korea training in the martial

The second stage is known as the Developmental Stage (1960-1970). During
this period each Korean martial art came under govermental conrtol. This led
to a more standardized method of teaching.

In the third stage, the Maturing Stage (1970-present day), the second and
third generations of martial artists took control and organized martial arts
in terms of techniques and organizational structure. From this point, the
practice and knowledge of Korean martial arts spread throughout the world.
Thes second and third generations of martial artists began to restructure
the traditional techniques and philosophy of the martial arts to fit
contemporary times. One of these masters was Dr. He-Young Kimm.

Dr. Kimm began studying Yudo and Bi Sool under the instruction of Song
Kang-sub (1953). After further training in many different types of Korean
martial arts. Among his many teachers, Kimm considers Song Kwang-sub and Yun
Yong-jo as his Yudo and Bi Sool teachers. Won Kwang-wha and Ji Han-jae as
his Hapkido teachers, Kang Suh-jong as his Tae Kwon Do teacher, Sun In-hyuk
as his Kuk Sool teacher, Son Duk-ki as his Kum Do teacher, Cho Seung-yong as
his Kum Do teacher, Kim Kwang-suk as his Ship Phal Ke teacher and Sung Soo
Dae Sa as his Zen teacher.

From 1958 through 1963, Kimm taught Korean martial arts self-defense
techniques to the 8th United States Army stationed in Pusan Area Command,
Pusan, Korea. Upon the recommendation of Colonel Angle Myer, Kimm was
invited to the United States by Dr. Mark Scully. Dr. Scully, President of
Southeast Missouri State University, invited Kimm to Cape Girodeau, Missouri
to become the Korean martial arts instructor in the Physical Education
Department while continuing his education.

Kimm arrived in the United States on November 1, 1963. He began teaching
Yudo, Hapkido and Tae Kwon Do to the students of Southeast Missouri State
University on November 3. One of the first students was Dr. Scully's son,

With the assistance of Dr. Scully, the Korean martial arts population grew
rapidly and required pre-registration in order to get into Kimm's class.
Kimm was invited to and attended many martial arts tournaments throughout
the southern and mid-western areas of the United States. He performed
numerous demonstrations and in 1967, he was selected as "Best Martial Arts
Instructor" by a Chicago martial arts group.

With the encouragement of Suh In-hyuk, the founder of Kuk Sool, and Ji
Han-jae, the founder of modern Hapkido, Dr. Kimm organized his own style of
martial arts called Han Mu Do.
Han means Korea (nation of optimism) and Mu Do means martial
arts. Therefore, Han Mu Do translates to Korea martial arts. This system
was founded by Grandmaster He-Young Kimm in 1989. Han Mu Do is registed to
the Korean Government as a recognized style of Korean martial arts.
(Registered Number 534)

The founder of Han Mu Do, Grandmaster He-Young Kimm. During his forty years
of training and research in numerous styles of Korean martial arts, he found
the strength and weaknesses of thes arts. Most modern Korean martial arts
were founded during the 1950's to fit the needs of that generation in Korea.
For example, Korean self-defense emphasized defense against wrist, cloth and
body seizes. The reason for this was because before opponents engaged in
fighting, the attacker would grab the wrist, cloth or body of his
opponentand then either push, pull, punch or kick and then throw. Since
then, instead of grabbing first, the fighting pattern has changed and now an
attacker also the option of kicking or punching first. Therefore, Dr. Kimm
felt that a need for a balance between defense against wrist, cloth and/or
body seize was needed with punches and kicks.

Another reason that Dr. Kimm created the Han Mu Do system was because that
since the 1950's, more traditional self-defense techniques were discovered
by various masters and new innovative techniques were added as a part of the
Korean self-defense system. Those traditonal techniques founded recently and
new innovative techniques are deserved to be a part of Korean self-defense
systems today.

Thirdly, since 1962, Dr. Kimm has been collecting historical material and
conducting interviews and research on Korean martial arts. In 1999, Dr. Kimm
is planning to publish and release the book. "History of Korean Martial
Arts" which will contain the date and information that he has collected over
the years. During the research for this book, Dr. Kimm has met hundreds of
Korean martial arts masters from different styles of martial arts including
Tae Kyun, Soo Byuk Ta, Yu Do, Yu Sul, Tae Kwon Do, Kum Do, Kum Sool, Kung
Do, Kung Sul, Hapkido, Kuk Sool, Ship Phal Ki and Son Do Sul. Dr. Kimm not
only verbally interviewed with masters of these styles of martial arts, but
also trained under many of them in order to understand the technical aspects
of their respective arts as well as the theoretical and historical
backgrounds. Dr. Kimm incorporated many of those techniques into the Han Mu
Do system.

The Han Mu Do System has been divided into four main divisions. These
divisions are:

1. Yuh Kwon Sul (Empty hand techniques)
2. Mu Ki Sul (Weapon techniques)
3. Son Do Sul (Ki exercises)
4. Han Chul Hak (Han philosophy)

The unique characteristic of Han Mu Do is the emphasis of a "centered" or
balanced system.

1. The balance between non-weapon and weapon techniques.
2. The balance between external muscle techniques and internal Ki techniques.
3. The balance between physical body training and philosophical, mental and
   spiritual training.
4. The balance between left side and right side techniques.
5. The balance between traditional philosophy and traditional techniques and
   the new new innovative philosophy and techniques.
URLs:  www.intersurf.com/~jakers/kimm.html
11.4) Hapkido
This Korean art is sometimes confused with the Japanese art of Aikido,
since the Korean and Japanese translation of the two names is the same.
Origin:    Korea
Hapkido history is the subject of some controversy.
Some sources say that the founder of Hapkido, Choi, Yong Sul was a
houseboy/servant of Japanese Daito Ryu Aiki-Jujutsu GrandMaster Takeda,
Sokaku.  In Japan Choi possibly used the Japanese name Yoshida, Tatsujutsu
since all immigrants to Japan took Japanese names at that time.  Choi's
Japanese name has also been given as Asao, Yoshida by some sources.

According to this view, Choi studied under Takeda in Japan from 1913, when
he was age 9, until Takeda died in 1943.  However, Daito Ryu records do
not reflect this, so hard confirmation is not available at this time.  Some
claim that Choi's Daito Ryu training was limited to attending seminars and
watching classes from the sideline.  The Daito Ryu/Hapkido lineage is as
  Shinka Saburo Yoshimitsu, 12th Century, Daito Ryu
  Saigo Chikamasa, 1829-1905, Oshikiuchi
  Takeda Sokaku, 1858-1943, Aiki-Jujutsu
  Choi Yong Sool, 1904-1986, Hapkido
Ueshiba, Morihei, the founder of Aikido, was also a student of Takeda (this
is not disputed).  Hapkido and Aikido have significant similarities to
Daito Ryu Aiki-Jujutsu, so it would seem that Hapkido's link to it is real,
regardless of how and where Choi was trained.
Choi returned to Korea after Takeda's death and began teaching Yu Sool or
Yawara (other names for Jujutsu), eventually calling his kwan (or school)
the Hapki Kwan.  Ji, Han-Jae, began studying under Choi in 1949 and eventually
started his own school, where he taught an art that he named Hapkido.
(GM Ji now calls his system Sin Moo (pronounced 'Shin Moo') Hapkido.  He
currently lives and teaches in Elkins Park, PA, near Philadelphia)
Several other of Choi's Hapkido students are still living.  Chang, Chun Il
currently resides in New York state, and Im, Hyon Soo who lives and teaches
in Korea.  Both of these men were promoted to 9th dan by GM Choi.
Hapkido combines joint locks, pressure points, throws, kicks, and strikes
for practical self-defense.  Emphasizes circular motion, non-resistive
movements, and control of the opponent.
Although Hapkido contains both outfighting and infighting techniques, the
goal in most situations is to get inside for a close-in strike, lock, or
throw.  When striking, deriving power from hip rotation is strongly emphasized.
Varies with organization and instructor.  In some schools beginners
concentrate on basic strikes and kicks, along with a few joint locks and
throws.  Some of the striking and kicking practice is form-like, that is,
with no partner, however, most is done with a partner who is holding heavy
pads that the student strikes and kicks full power.
Advanced students add a few more strikes and kicks as well as many more
throws, locks, and pressure points.  There is also some weapons training
for advanced students - primarily rope/scarf, short stick, cane, boken,
and staff.
Some schools do forms, most do not.  Some do sparring and some do not,
although at the advanced levels, most schools do at least some sparring.
Many Hapkido techniques are unsuitable for use in sparring as their use
would result in injury, even when protective gear is used.  Thus sparring
typically uses only a limited subset of techniques.
There is generally an emphasis on physical conditioning and exercise,
including "ki" exercises.
11.5) Hwa Rang Do
Intro: Hwa Rang Do is a comprehensive, modern, eclectic martial arts
system encompassing unarmed combat, weaponry, internal training and healing
Origin:    Korea
In March 1942, the founder of Hwa Rang Do, Dr. Joo Bang Lee and
his brother, Joo Sang Lee were introduced to the Buddhist monk Suahm Dosa
by their father, who was a personal friend of the monk, and they began
their formal training aged 5 & 6.
The brothers lived and trained as students under the monk on
the weekends and during school vacations and also trained in other
martial arts when they were unable to train under Suahm Dosa.  Influences
includes Boxing, Yudo, Komdo, and Kongsoodo.  In addition, the Lee
brothers studied Hapkido under GM Choi Yong Sool.
In April 1960 Dr. Joo Bang Lee claims to have created his martial art by
combining Suham Dosa's techniques with the other systems he had trained.
He choose the name Hwa Rang Kwan to describe his system and this also
is thought to be the first time that Hwa Rang was used in connection
with unarmed Korean martial arts.
Since there is no way of knowing if the techniques Suahm Dosa taught the
brothers actually was the martial art of the Silla Hwa Rang, or another
form of monk martial art, Dr. Joo Bang Lee says he wanted to "combine
the spirit and philosophy of the Hwa Rang with his martial arts knowledge".
In 1962, the Lee Brother's founded the Korean Martial Arts Association
(Han Kuk Mu Sul Hwe - shortened name Kuk Sul Hwe).  Due to various
conflicts within the leadership of the Korean Martial Arts Association
it was disbanded in 1966 and its original members started their own
respective organizations.
Following this dissolution, Dr. Joo Bang Lee concentrated his efforts
solely on the development of his own martial arts system.  He called it Hwa
Rang Do, "The Way of the Flowering Manhood".
In 1968, Head Grandmaster Joo Sang Lee taught Hapkido and Hwa Rang Do in
the USA.  Dr. Joo Bang Lee became the system's "Supreme Grandmaster" upon
Suahm Dosa's death in 1969.  He immigrated to the USA in 1972 and later
founded the World Hwa Rang Do Association.  Today  World Hwa Rang Do
Association is headquartered in Downey, California (USA).  Joo Sang Lee is
no longer involved with JB Lee's Hwa Rang Do.
Kim, Myung Man of Australia also independently named his art Hwa Rang Do.
Kim Myung Man's teaching are based on his training in Chang Moo Kwan and
his training with the military.  As with JB Lee's Hwa Rang Do, Kim's material
is a derivative of Hapkido, has a focus on full-power fighting techniques,
covert skills and Ki cultivation.
Description:  JB Lee's Hwa Rang Do is a combination of UM (soft/circular
movement) and YANG (hard/linear movement), making it a very diversified
and comprehensive martial art.  The Mu Sul (martial aspects) of Hwa Rang Do
can be further explained in four distinct - though interconnecting - paths
of study.
NAE GONG - deals with developing, controlling, and directing one's Ki,
or internal energy force, through breathing and meditation exercises in
conjunction with specific physical techniques. Due to the exercises'
internal nature, they demand patience and concentration.
WAE GONG - Wae gong includes more than 4000 offensive and defensive
combative applications.  Combining elements predominantly tense and
linear in nature with those soft and circular, these techniques mesh to
form a natural fighting system.  This phase includes full instruction in
all hand strikes and blocks (trapping and grabbing as well as deflection
applications, using the hands, wrist, forearm, elbows, arms and
shoulders), 365 individual kicks, throws and falls from any position and
onto any surfaces, human anatomical structure as it pertains to combat
applications (knowing and utilizing the body's weak points to
effectively control the opponent, regardless of their size), joint
manipulation and breaking, finger pressure-point application, prisoner
arrest, control and transport, grappling applications, forms, offensive
choking and flesh-tearing techniques, defense against multiple
opponents, breaking techniques, counter-attacks, and killing techniques.
MOO GI GONG - involves the offensive and defensive use of the over 108
traditional weapons found within 20 categories of weaponry.  By learning
these various weapon systems, the practitioner can most effectively
utilize any available object as a weapon as the situation demands.
SHIN GONG - is the study, development, and control of the human mind in
order to attain one's full potential and mental capabilities.  Techniques
are taught to achieve an increase in one's total awareness, focus, and
concentration levels.
Included are instruction in : controlling one's mind; development of the
"sixth sense"; memory recall; the study of human character and
personalities; practical psychology; visualization; the art of
concealment and stealth as utilized by special agents (Sulsa); as well
as advanced, secretive applications.
Hwa Rang Do teaches both the martial art (mu-sul) and healing art
(in-sul).  If one is able to injure or worse, then he/she should know how
to heal as well, once again maintaining harmony through balance of
opposites.  The In Sul aspects (the study of the Oriental Healing Arts)
of Hwa Rang Do are every bit as complex and demanding as the study of
Occidental Medicine. First aid applications, revival techniques are
taught in conjunction with the traditional full studies of acupuncture,
acupressure, herbal and natural medicines, and bone setting.
Training: A typical training session includes Meditation (beginning and
end of class).  Total body stretching and warm-up exercises. Basic
punching and kicking practice.  Ki power exercises. "Basic-8" combination
drills (which vary by belt rank).  Two-man countering techniques (vary by
belt rank).  Open session which may include: sparring, tumbling,
grappling, sweeps, or advanced techniques. Self-defense techniques. Cool
down exercises.  Hwa Rang Do code of ethics.
For additional information on Master JB Lee's HwaRangDo:
World Hwa Rang Do Association
8200 E. Firestone Blvd.
Downey, CA 90241
(562) 861-0111
Sub-styles:  Michael DeAlba's Modern Hwa Rang Do
URLs:   www.hwarangdo.com
11.6) Kuk Sool Won
Kuk Sool Won is a comprehensive system of the traditional Korean
martial arts; it is not a 'style' of martial art per se.  It incorporates
aspects of different martial arts, including Hapkido and Ship Pal Gi.
Origin:    Korea
In 1910, Japan dismantled the Korean Royal Court armies as a part
of their occupation of the Korean peninsula.  The practice of any Korean
martial art was prohibited and martial arts weapons were confiscated. One
of those who went into hiding was Master Instructor Suh Myuhng Duk. He
started training his grandson, Suh In Hyuk at the age of 5 and continued to
train with him until his untimely death during the Korean War. Suh In Hyuk
had letters of introduction, though, and continued to train with other
practitioners of traditional Korean MAs. One teacher, Hai Dong Seu Nym,
instructed Suh in special types of breathing exercises, meditation
techniques and ki skills. Another very influential teacher was Hapkido's
Choi Yong Sool.
In the 1960's Suh In Hyuk organized the martial arts he had learned and
produced a system he called Kuk Sool. He associated it as Kuk Sool Won
in 1961. In 1974 Suh In Hyuk came to the US. He established the World Kuk Sool
Association Headquarters in 1975 in San Francisco; later moved to Houston, Texas.
Kuk Sool Won is a comprehensive system of Korean martial arts.  
It includes joint-locking, grappling, sparring, throwing techniques,
forms training, falling principles, pressure point striking, accupressure
and acupuncture, hand striking, leg techniques, acrobatics, body
conditioning, animal-style techniques, weapons, internal energy systems,
meditation and breathing techniques.
URLs:  kuksool.org
11.7) Kumdo
Intro:      A popular sport in Japanese and Korean communities.
Origin:     Japan
Kumdo (Kendo in Japan) is the sport and competitive form of the Japanese art
of Kenjutsu.  Kumdo has been practiced for a long time in one form or another.
The practitioners wear protective armor and use simulated swords (split
bamboo called "shinai") to "spar" against one another.  Strike areas are
limited as are moves.  It is a very formal art.  It is linear, hard, and external.
Training mostly consists of two-person drills, basics, and some kata that
have been retained from kenjutsu between individuals.
11.8) Soo Bahk Do
Intro:      A traditional Korean unarmed martial art. Soo (hand) Bahk (strike 
or educated) Do (way or road).  A hard/soft classical art with powerful kicking techniques.
Origin:     Korea
History:   Soo Bahk as Soo Bahk Hi / Soo Bahk Ki is mentioned often
throughout ancient korean history when martial arts are mentioned. Most
specifically in the Moo Ye Do Bo Tong Ji (Military Arts Manual) which was
writen in the 1700's. During the Japanese occupation of Korea GM Hwang Kee
after learning a bit of TaekKyon left Korea for China where he was
able to study Chinese Gung Fu. In 1945 he returned to Korea and opened
his scool called Moo Duk Kwan (Institude of Martial Virtue) calling the art Hwa
Soo Do (way of the flowering hand) do to lack of a name for his art. When he
had extreme difficulty attracting students he reopened his school as Tang
Soo Do after gaining the permission of other Seoul instructors using that
term. He rapidily found success. In 1957 Hwang Kee found the Moo Ye Do
Bo Tong Ji in the Ministry of Transportation library. In it was described what
GM Hwang claimed was the martial art of Soo Bahk Hi.

In 1961 he reincorperated the Korean Tang Soo Do Association as the
Korean Soo Bahk Do Association. The Moo Duk Kwan being the first member
school to join and the Ji Do Kwan which had taught it's art as
Kong Soo Do was the next member school to join. These two schools
together comprised over 70% of students with Dan ranking in Korea
at that time. By about 1964 most students had left the Korean Soo Bahk
Do Association. The Ji Do Kwan founder also quit, leaving Moo Duk Kwan as
the only remaining school. Over a period of time instructors where sent over
seas. Due to the two names many American servicemen had been taught (Tang
Soo Do and Soo Bahk Do) many other countries had the art introduced as Tang
Soo Do.
Description: Soo Bahk Do is a hard soft style with powerful kicking
techniques similar to Tae Kwon Do. It does make greater use of the hands
however. Students are encouraged to be "warriors" but to also be
scholars. Students are expected to learn korean terminology and history as
well as encourgaed to learn beyond these areas. As a classical Martial arts
there is relatively little competion to the point of almost none in some
areas. A unique aspect of Soo Bahk Do is also the fact that "Black Belts"
don't wear black but Midnight Blue instead. The theory is that black is
infinate and therefore perfect and as one can never be perfect the Dans wear
blue to siginify that imptovemnet is always possible. The emphasis in Soo
Bahk Do is on Physical, Spiritual and Mental well being as well as self
defense. Students practice forms, sparring and self defense techniques
similar to those in Aikido. Dan level students learn to defend against knives
and short staves.
Influences:  Northern chinese, due to GM Hwang Kee's studies in China.
Okinawan, GM Hwang Kee utilized Okinawan Forms learned from a book
wriiten by Funakoshi.
URLs: www.soobahkdo.com, www.soobahkdo.org
11.9) Taekwondo
Intro:    One of the most popular sports and martial arts in the world.  Often
characterized by its fast, high, and powerful spinning kicks.  Tae = Foot,
Kwon = Fist, Do = Way.
Origin:   Korea
After fifty years of occupation by Japan (which ended in 1945) and after
the division of the nation by the Korean War, Korean nationalism spurred
the creation of a national art in the 1950s.  Combining the styles of
numerous Kwans active within the country since 1945, the name Taekwondo
was eventually settled upon and began being used throughout S.Korea
about 1964.  Names frequently used prior to that were Tang Soo Do, Kong
Soo Do, Kwon Bup, Hwa Soo Do, and Tae Soo Do.  The name Taekwondo was
apparently selected because of its similarity with the name Taek-kyon, a
martial art native to Korea.
The kwans, or schools, previously mentioned that were
most involved were: 
School  Founder
Chung Do Kwan
Song Moo Kwan 
Moo Duk Kwan
Yon Moo Kwan  
Chang Moo Kwan
Chi/Ji Do Kwan 
Oh Do Kwan    
Won Kuk Lee
Noh Byung Jik
Hwang Kee
Chun Sang Sup
Pyong In Yun
Yon Kue Pyang
Choi Hong Hi and Nam Tae Hi
In April 1955, a committee was organized by Gen. Choi Hong Hi to choose a
unifying name for the art practiced by the original Kwans.  Attending this
meeting were various business leaders and also Chung Do Kwan instructors
GM Son Duk Sung and GM Hyun Jong Myun.  Gen. Choi, as chairman of the
committee, is credited with suggesting the name "Tae Kwon".  The committee
unanimously agreed.  However, the name was not immediately accepted by the
other Kwans.
Various organizations were formed over the years to bring the Korean
martial arts under one roof:  the Korea Tang Soo Do Association, the
Korea Kong Soo Do Association, Korea Soo Bahk Do Association, and the
Korea Tae Soo Do Association.  Finally, the Korea Taekwondo Association
was born out of the Korea Tae Soo Do Association in 1965.
In 1966 the International Taekwon-do Federation (ITF) was formed by Gen.
Choi as a private organization.  Gen. Choi focused his efforts and that
of the ITF on popularizing Taekwondo outside of S.Korea.  In 1972, Gen.
Choi and the ITF left S.Korea and resettled in Canada.
In 1971 S.Korean President Park Chung Hee declared Taekwondo to be
Korea's national sport and funds were allocated to create the world
headquarters for Taekwondo, the Kukkiwon, completed in 1972.  In 1973
the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) was formed with Dr. Kim Un Yong as
President.  Taekwondo is an official olympic sport in Sydney 2000.
Other than the WTF and the ITF there are numerous smaller Taekwondo
federations and organizations, e.g. the American Taekwondo Association,
the Global Taekwon-do Federation, Universal Taekwondo Federation, US
Taekwondo Association, US National Taekwondo Federation, Unified
Taekwon-do International, World Taekwondo Association, etc., however all
these Taekwondo groups use somewhat similar techniques and approaching to
teaching and training.
Training frequently emphasizes sparring, forms, and basics.
Taekwondo was strongly influenced by Okinawan Karate and Japanese
Karate-do, because of the 50 year Japanese occupation of Korea.  It was
forbidden to train in Korean martial arts during the Japanese
occupation, so many people were trained in Japanese martial arts.  Also
many Koreans were sent to Japan for education and military training and
were taught Japanese martial arts during their time in Japan.
Taekwondo is a version of unarmed combat designed for the purpose of
self-defense.  It is the scientific use of a body that has gained the
ultimate use of its facilities through intensive physical and mental
The purpose of Taekwondo instruction is to help cultivate a person into
a physically, morally, and socially idealistic human being.  Physically,
it promotes health, self-defense ability, and enhancement of physical
abilities.  Mentally, it aids in social, emotional, and intellectual development.
The basic movements of Taekwondo are stances, blocks, kicks, and
strikes. The basic attacks are arm applied techniques such as punching
with a fist, striking with the edge of the hand or other part of the
body, basic kicking, and jump kicks.
Poomsae training is an important part of Taekwondo as offensive and defensive
techniques can be practiced and trained even without a training partner or
instructor being present.  During Poomsae training one must learn the pattern
and understand fully the significance of the moves in the pattern.
Sparring is often strongly stressed once a student begins to learn the
basic movements and techniques of Taekwondo.  This sparring may take the
form of use of street self-defense techniques or sport sparring
techniques.  Kicks are often stressed in Taekwondo as a person legs are
much stronger than their arms, thus kicks are frequently able to do more
damage to an attacker than punches.
Self-defense techniques such as fighting while in a sitting position, defense
against a short club, and defense against a knife.
Brief Taekwondo Bibliography:
"Korean Martial Sports" - Willy Pieter - 1994 - Journal of Asian Martial Arts
"Korean Hwarang and Japanese Samuray" - willy Pieter - 1984 - Olympic
  Scientific Congress (Schors-Verlag 1985)
"Etymological notes on the terminology of some Korean martial arts" - Willy
  Pieter - 1981 - Asian Journal of Physical Education.
"Interview with Master Park Jung Tae" - Paul Clifton - 1990 - Combat (November
"Instructors Profile: GM Park Jung Tae" - Dan & Katie Preuss - 1994 -
 TKD Times, December
"The flower boys of Silla" - R. Rutt - 1961 - Transactions of the Korean Branch
  of the Royal Asiatic Society.
"Taekwondo: The Korean art of self defense" - Choi H. H. - 1972 - ITF, Toronto.
11.10) Taekwondo Chung Do Kwan
Intro:     The original style of "Korean Karate".
Origin:    Yong Chun, Seoul, South Korea
Chung Do Kwan as translated into English is The Gym of the Blue Wave.
This original style of Taekwondo was founded by Grandmaster Won Kuk Lee
in 1944.  GM Lee received training in Shotokan Karate, under its founder
Funakoshi Gichen, while attending law school at Chuo University.  A
direct translation of Shotokan into Korean characters is pronounced as
Song Do Kwan, GM Lee changed the Song character to the Chung character
for the art he taught.  The explanation he gave for this is that in
Korea you do not name your child with your name.  GM Lee first began
teaching an art called Tang Soo Do in a middle school in Seoul.  That
school was closed shortly do to lack of students.  Then in 1945 in a
church GM Lee began to teach again, some of his students were Duk Sung
Son, Woon Kyu Uhm, Jong Myung Hyun, Jae Chun Ko, Jhoon Rhee, and Hyun Ok
When the Korean War broke out, GM Lee fled to Japan, choosing Son Duk
Sung as his successor.  GM Son was chosen partially because he was the
oldest of the senior students.
After the Korean War, many of the older Chung Do Kwan members who served
in the Korean military began opening Tang Soo Do Chung Do Kwan branches.
GM Son was later replaced by GM Uhm Woon Kyo.  GM Uhm still holds this
position today.
After moving to the United States, GM Son founded the World Tae Kwon Do
Association.  He later began reusing the name Chung Do Kwan in describing
his version of Taekwondo.
Through the years as the Korean martial arts progressed the term used to
refer to Chung Do Kwan had changed from Tang Soo Do to Tae Soo Do, and then
finally to Taekwondo.
As Chung Do Kwan is a style of Taekwondo, it follows the same ideas as
Taekwondo as a whole, with specialty techniques being the side kick,
flying side kick, jumping side kick, and later the turn around side
kick/back kick and jumping/flying turn around side/back kick.
All classes in the Chung Do Kwan began with a recitation of the membership
oath lead by the senior student:
We as members, train our spirits and bodies according to the strict code
We as members, are united in mutual friendship
We as members, will comply with regulations and obey instructors
Then class would begin with basics, followed by forms, and then 1, 3
and/or 5 step training, free sparring and then a formal bow out ceremony.
Also additional training was done with the Kwon Go (Makiwara) outside of
class by most students if not all, at some point it was included in the
formal workout, but is not present in Tae Kwon Do training today as it was then.
The original set of forms used by the Chung Do Kwan were taken from
Japan ese and Okinawan arts, later they were replaced by the military
Chon Ji set until Gen. Choi left Korea.  At that point the official
forms of the Chung Do Kwan and the other Kwans were the newly created
Palgwes and then finally replaced with the Tae Geuks.  Many Grandmasters
and Masters in the Chung Do Kwan have branched out and are no longer
affiliated with the WTF /Kukkiwon and the Korea Taekwondo Chung Do Kwan,
so many practitioners of the Chung Do Kwan style of Taekwondo know
practice many different forms, including all of the above as well as
others.  The only official current forms of the Korea Taekwondo Chung Do
Kwan are the WTF Tae Geuks.
Also of interest is the 30 year old US Chung Do Kwan Association headed
by GM Edward Sell.  The USCDKA has affiliated schools all over the USA
and a few other countries.
URLs:           www.uscdka.com
11.11) T'aeggyon (aka. Tae Kyun, Tae Kyon, Taek Kyon)
Intro: A traditional martial art of Korea.
Origin:      Korea.
T'aeggyon has been designated as a national treasure of Korea.  Originating
around the start of the nineteenth century, T'aeggyon is often described as
a parent art of the more famous t'aegwondo (aka. Tae Kwon Do, T'aekwondo,
Taekwon-Do).  T'aeggyon, as a traditional Korean martial art, was illegal
during the Japanese Occupation of Korea (1910-1945) and only two masters
were still active at the end of that era.  The most famous of these was
Duk-Ki Song(1893-1987), who repopularized t'aeggyon in the late 1950s.  Renewed
interest in t'aeggyon influenced the development of t'aegwondo, which until
then had closely mirrored its Japanese antecedent of Shotokan karate-do.
T'aeggyon is a game that serves to bridge the striking arts and the grappling
arts.  The person who gets the first point wins the bout.  You can earn a
point by:
   1.  Kicking the opponent in the head.
   2.  Throwing or sweeping the opponent to the floor.
Students learn crescent kicks, roundhouse kicks, and sweeps, as well as
some throws reminiscent of yudo (aka. judo).  Open palm pushes are the
most common hand technique.  Falling is also an important part of
training, including dive rolls, etc.  Students are divided into lower ranks
(ma-dang) and upper ranks (pum).
Practitioners in Pusan apparently allow front thrust kick during sparring.
The Seoul branch (at least those under Ki-Hyun Do) do not allow any thrust
kicks (ie. no front kicks or side kicks).  The Seoul branch also does not
teach any closed fist techniques or pressure point strikes.  Videos of
the Pusan style are available from Robert Young at his Korean Martial
Arts Resource (KMAR) web page.

URL:  www.taekkyon.or.kr/en/
11.12) Yudo
Yudo is the same as the Japanese art of Judo.  The following is a description
of Judo.
Origin:     Japan
Judo is derived from the Japanese arts of Jujutsu. It was created by Prof.
Jigoro Kano who was born in Japan in 1860 and who died in 1938 after a
lifetime of promoting Judo. Mastering several styles of jujutsu in his
youth Kano began to develop his own system based on modern sports principles.
In 1882 he founded the Kodokan Judo Institute in Tokyo where he began
teaching and which still is the international authority for Judo. The name
Judo was chosen because it means the "gentle way". Kano emphasised the
larger educational value of training in attack and defense so that it could
be a path or way of life that all people could participate in and benefit
from. He eliminated some of the traditional jujutsu techniques and changed
training methods so that most of the moves could be done with full force to
create a decisive victory without injury.
The popularity of Judo increased dramatically after a famous contest hosted
by the Tokyo police in 1886 where the Judo team defeated the most
well-known jujutsu school of the time. It then became a part of the
Japanese physical education system and began its spread around the world.
In 1964 men's Judo competition became a part of the Olympics, the only
eastern martial art that is an official medal sport. In 1992 Judo competition
for women was added to the Olympics.
Judo is practiced on mats and consists primarily of throws and grappling,
which includes pins, chokes, and armbars. Additional techniques,
including striking and various joint locks are found in the judo katas.
Judo is generally compared to wrestling but it retains its unique combat
forms.  As a daughter to Jujutsu these techniques are also often taught
in Judo classes.
Because the founder was involved in education (President of Tokyo
University) Judo training emphasizes mental, moral and character
development as much as physical training.  Most instructors stress the
principles of Judo such as the principle of yielding to overcome greater
strength or size, as well as the scientific principles of leverage,
balance, efficiency, momentum and control.
Judo training has many forms for different interests.  Some students
train for competition by sparring and entering the many tournaments that
are available.  Other students study the traditional art and forms (kata)
of Judo.  Other students train for self-defense, and yet other students
play Judo for fun. Black belts are expected to learn all of these aspects
of Judo.
Because Judo originated in modern times it is organized like other major
sports with one international governing body, the International Judo
Federation (IJF), and one technical authority (Kodokan).  There are several
small splinter groups  (such as the Zen Judo Assoc.) who stress judo as a
"do" or path, rather than a sport.
Unlike other martial arts, Judo competition rules, training methods, and
rank systems are relatively uniform throughout the world.
12.0 TaeKwonDo Olympic sparring rules
The World Taekwondo Federation
ENACTED: MAY 28, 1973
REVISED: OCT. 1,1977
REVISED: FEB. 23,1982
REVISED: OCT. 19,1983
REVISED: OCT. 7, 1989
REVISED: OCT. 26, 1991
REVISED: NOV. 18, 1997 (Effective as of July 1st 1998)

Article 1. Purpose

The purpose of the Competition Rules is to manage fairly and smoothly all matters pertaining to competitions of all levels to be promoted and/ or organized by the WTF, Regional Unions and member National Associations, ensuring the application of standardized rules.

Article 2. Application

The Competition Rules shall apply to all the competitions to be promoted and/or organized by the WTF, each Regional Union and member National Association. However, any member National Association wishing to modify some part of the Competition Rules must first gain the approval of the WTF.

Article 3. Competition Area

The Competition Area shall measure 12m x 12m in metric system and have a flat surface without any obstructing projections.

The Competition Area shall be covered with an elastic mat. However, the Competition Area may be installed on a platform 0.5m - 0.6m high from the base, if necessary, and the outer part of the Boundary Line shall be inclined with a gradient of less than 30' degrees for the safety of the contestants.

  1. Demarcation of the Competition Area

    1. The 8m x 8m area in the inner part of the Competition Area of 12m x 12m shall be called the Contest Area and the outer part of the Contest Area shall be called the Alert Area.

    2. The demarcation of the Contest Area and the Alert Area shall be distinguished by the different colors of the two area's surface, or indicated by a white line 5cm wide when the entire surface is one color.

    3. The demarcating line between the Contest Area and the Alert Area shall be called the Alert Line and the marginal line of the Competition Area shall be called the Boundary Line.

  2. Indication of Positions

    1. Position of the Referee

      The position of the Referee shall be marked at a point 1.5m back from the center point of the Competition Area to the 3rd Boundary Line and designated as the Referee's Mark.

    2. Position of the Judges

      The position of the 1st Judge shall be marked at a point 0.5m outwards from the of the 1st Boundary Line facing towards the center point of the Competition Area and the position of the 2nd Judge shall be marked 0.5m outwards from the bottom corner of the 2nd Boundary Line facing the center of the Competition Area. The position of the 3rd Judge shall be marked at the opposite point of the 4th Boundary Line with the position of the 2nd Judge.

    3. Position of the Recorder

      The position of the Recorder shall be marked at a point 1.5m back from the position of the 1st Judge and 3m to the left.

    4. Position of the Commission Doctor

      The position of the Commission Doctor shall be marked at a point 6m to the right side of the position of the Recorder.

    5. Position of the Contestants

      The position of the Contestants shall be marked at a point 1m to the respective left and right sides from the center point of the Competition Area facing towards the position of the 1st Judge. The right side shall be the Blue Contestant's Mark and the left side shall be the Red Contestant's Mark.

    6. Position of the Coaches

      The position of the Coaches shall be marked at a point 1m away from the center point of the Boundary Line of each contestant's side.

    7. Position of the Inspection Desk

      The position of the Inspection Desk shall be near the entrance of the Competition Area for inspection of the contestant's protective equipment.

I. Competition Area 1. Referee's Mark
II. Alert Area 2. Judge's Mark
III. Contest Area 3. Recorder's Mark
IV. Alert Line 4. Commission Doctor's Mark
V. Boundary Line 5-1. Blue Contestant's Mark
V-I. 1st Boundary Line 5-2. Red Contestant's Mark
    6-1. Blue Coach's Mark
    6-2. Red Coach's Mark
    7. Inspection Desk

* 2nd, 3rd & 4th Boundary Line clockwise

Article 4. Contestants

  1. Qualification of Contestants

    1. Holder of the nationality of the participating team

    2. One recommended by the national Taekwondo Association

    3. Holder of Taekwondo Dan certificate issued by the Kukkiwon/WTF, and in case of World Junior Taekwondo Championships, holder of Kukkiwon Poom/Dan aged 14 through 17 years old based on the year when the Championships are held.

  2. The Costume for Contestants

    1. The contestant shall wear a Taekwondo uniform (Dobok) and protectors recognized by the WTF.

    2. The contestant shall wear the trunk protector, head protector, groin guard, forearm and shin guards before entering the contest area and the groin guard, forearm and shin guards shall be worn inside the Taekwondo uniform, and the contestant shall bring the WTF-approved protectors for personal use.

  3. Medical Control

    1. The use or administration of drugs or chemical substances described in the IOC doping by-laws is prohibited.

    2. The WTF may carry out any medical testing deemed necessary to ascertain if a contestant has committed a breach of this rule, and any winner who refuses to this testing or who proves to have committed such a breach shall be removed from the final standings, and the record shall be transferred to the contestant next in line in the competition standings.

    3. The organizing committee shall be liable for arrangements to carry out medical testing.

Article 5. Weight Divisions

  1. Weights are divided into male and female divisions.

  2. Weight divisions are divided as follows:

    Weight category Male division Female division
    Fin Not exceeding 54kg Not exceeding 47kg
    Fly Over 54kg & not exceeding 58kg Over 47kg & not exceeding 51kg
    Bantam Over 58kg & not exceeding 62kg Over 51kg & not exceeding 55kg
    Feather Over 62kg & not exceeding 67kg Over 55kg & not exceeding 59kg
    Light Over 67kg & not exceeding 72kg Over 59kg & not exceeding 63kg
    Welter Over 72kg & not exceeding 78kg Over 63kg & not exceeding 67kg
    Middle Over 78kg & not exceeding 84kg Over 67kg & not exceeding 72kg
    Heavy Over 84kg Over 72kg

  3. Weight divisions for the Olympic Games are divided as follows:

    Male division Female division
    Not exceeding 58kg Not exceeding 49kg
    Over 58kg & not exceeding 68kg Over 49kg & not exceeding 57kg
    Over 68kg & not exceeding 80kg Over 57kg & not exceeding 67kg
    Over 80kg Over 67kg

  4. Weight divisions for the World Junior Championships are divided as follows:

Weight category Male division Female division
Fin Not exceeding 45kg Not exceeding 42kg
Fly Over 45kg & not exceeding 48kg Over 42kg & not exceeding 44kg
Bantam Over 48kg & not exceeding 51kg Over 44kg & not exceeding 46kg
Feather Over 51kg & not exceeding 55kg Over 46kg & not exceeding 49kg
Light Over 55kg & not exceeding 59kg Over 49kg & not exceeding 52kg
Welter Over 59kg & not exceeding 63kg Over 52kg & not exceeding 55kg
Light Middle Over 63kg & not exceeding 68kg Over 55kg & not exceeding 59kg
Middle Over 68kg & not exceeding 73kg Over 59kg & not exceeding 63kg
Light Heavy Over 73kg & not exceeding 78kg Over 63kg & not exceeding 68kg
Heavy Over 78kg Over 68kg

Article 6. Classification and Methods of Competition

  1. Competitions are divided as follows:

    1. Individual competition shall normally be between contestants in the same weight class. When necessary, adjoining weight classes may be combined to create a single classification.

    2. Team Competition : Systems of Competition

      1. Five (5) contestants by weight classification with the following category

        Male division Female division
        Not exceeding 54kg Not exceeding 47kg
        Over 54kg & not exceeding 63kg Over 47kg & not exceeding 54kg
        Over 63kg & not exceeding 72kg Over 54kg & not exceeding 61kg
        Over 72kg & not exceeding 82kg Over 61kg & not exceeding 68kg
        Over 82kg Over 68kg

      2. Eight (8) contestants by weight classification

      3. Four (4) contestants by weight classification
        (Consolidation of the eight weight classifications into four weight categories by combining two adjoining weight classes)

  2. Systems of competition are divided as follows:

    1. Single elimination tournament system

    2. Round robin system

  3. Taekwondo competition of the Olympic Games shall be conducted in individual system between contestants.

  4. All international-level competitions recognized by the WTF shall be formed with participation of at least 4 countries with no less than 4 contestants in each weight class, and any weight class with less than 4 contestants cannot be recognized in the official results.

Article 7. Duration of Contest

The duration of the contest shall be three rounds of three minutes with one minute of rest between rounds in male and female divisions with that of World Junior Championships being three rounds of two minutes with one minute of rest between rounds. However, the duration of the contest my be shortened to three rounds of two minutes with one minute of rest between rounds with the approval of the WTF.

Article 8. Drawing Lots

  1. The drawing of lots shall be conducted one day prior to the first competition in the presence of the WTF officials and the representatives of the participating nations, and the drawing lots shall be done from Fin weight up in the English alphabetical order of the official names of the participating nations.

  2. Officials shall be designated to draw lots on behalf of the officials of participating nations not present at the drawing.

  3. The order of the draw may be changed according to the decision of the Head of Team meeting.

Article 9. Weigh-in

  1. Weigh-in of the contestants on the day of competition shall be completed one hour prior to the competition.

  2. During weigh-in, the male contestant shall wear underpants and the female contestant shall wear underpants and brassiere. However, weigh-in may be conducted in the nude in the that the contestant wishes to do so.

  3. Weigh-in shall be made once, however, one more weigh-in is granted within the time limit for official weigh-in to the contestant who did not qualify the first time.

  4. So as not to be disqualified during official weigh-in a scale, the same as the official one, shall be provided at the contestants' place of accommodation or at the arena for preweigh-in.

Article 10. Procedure of the Contest

  1. Call for Contestants

    The name of the contestants shall be announced three times beginning three minutes prior to the scheduled start of the contest. The contestant who fails to appear in the contest area within one minute after the scheduled start of the competition shall be regarded withdrawn.

  2. Physical and Costume Inspection

    After being called, the contestants shall undergo physical and costume inspection at the designated inspection desk by the inspector designated by the WTF, and the contestant shall not show any signs of aversion, and also shall not bear any materials which could cause harm to the other contestant.

  3. Entering the Competition Area

    After inspection, the contestant shall enter into the waiting position with one coach.

  4. Start and End of the Contest

    The contest in each round shall begin with the declaration of "Shijak" (start) by the referee and shall end with the declaration of "Keuman" (stop) by the referee.

  5. Procedure Before the Beginning and After the End of the Contest

    1. The contestants shall face each other and make a standing bow at the referee's command of "Charyeot" (attention) and " Kyeongrye" (bow) . A standing bow shall be made from the natural standing posture of " Charyeot" by inclining forward at the waist to an angle of more than 30' degrees with the head inclined to an angle more than 45' degrees and the fists clenched at the sides of the legs.

    2. The referee shall start the contest by commanding "Joon-bi" (ready) and "Shi-jak" (start).

    3. After the end of the last round, the contestants shall stand at their respective positions facing each other and exchange a standing bow at the referee's command of "Charyeot", "Kyeongrye", and then wait for the referee's declaration of the decision in a standing posture.

    4. The referee shall declare the winner by raising his/her own hand to the winner's side.

    5. Retirement of the contestants.

  6. Contest Procedure in Team Competition

    1. Both teams shall stand facing each other in line in submitted team order towards the 1st Boundary Line from the Contestants' Marks.

    2. Procedure before the beginning and after the end of the contest shall be conducted as in item 5 of this Article.

    3. Both teams shall leave the Contest Area and stand by at the designated area for each contestant's match.

    4. Both teams shall line up in the Contest Area immediately after the end of the final match facing each other.

    5. The referee shall declare the winning team by raising his/her own hand to the winning team's side.

Article 11. Permitted Techniques and Areas

  1. Permitted Techniques

    1. Fist techniques: Delivering techniques by using the front parts of the forefinger and middle finger of the tightly clenched fist.

    2. Foot techniques: Delivering techniques by using the parts of the foot below the ankle bone.

  2. Permitted Areas

    1. Trunk: Within the limits of the area from a horizontal line at the base of the acromion down to a horizontal line at the iliac crest, attack by fist and foot techniques are permitted. However, such attacks shall not be made on the part of the back not covered by the trunk protector.

    2. Face: This area is the front part of the face on the basis of a coronal line at both ears, and attack by foot techniques only is permitted.

Article 12. Valid Points

  1. Legal Scoring Areas

    1. Mid-section of the trunk: the abdomen and both sides of the flank.

    2. Face: the permitted parts of the face.

  2. Points shall be awarded when permitted techniques are delivered accurately and powerfully to the legal scoring areas of the body. However, when a contestant is knocked down as a result of the opponent’s attack on a part of the trunk protector which is not part of a legal scoring area, such a technique shall be regarded as a point.

  3. Each scoring techniques shall earn 1 (plus one) point.

  4. Match score shall be the sum of points of the three rounds.

  5. Invalidation of points: When the following are committed, the delivered technique will not be scored.

    1. Intentionally falling, immediately after delivery of the legitimate technique.

    2. Committing an illegal act after delivery of the legitimate technique.

    3. Use of any of the prohibited actions.

Article 13. Scoring and Publication

  1. Valid points shall be immediately recorded and publicized.

  2. In the use of body protectors not equipped with electronics, valid points shall be immediately marked by each judge by using the electronic scoring instrument or judge's scoring sheet.

  3. In the use of electronic trunk protectors

    1. Valid points scored on the mid-section of the trunk shall be recorded automatically by the transmitter in the electronic trunk protector.

    2. Valid points scored to the face shall be marked by each judge by using the electronic scoring instrument or judge’s scoring sheet.

  4. In case of scoring by using the electronic scoring instrument or judge’s scoring sheet, valid points shall be the ones recognized by two or more judges.

Article 14. Prohibited Acts

  1. Penalties on any prohibited acts shall be declare by the referee.

  2. In the case of multiple penalties being committed simultaneously, the heavier penalty shall be declared.

  3. Penalties are divided into "Kyong-go" (warning penalty) and "Gam-jeom" (deduction penalty).

  4. Two "Kyong-gos" shall be counted as deduction of one (1) point. However, the odd "Kyong-go" shall not be counted in the grand total.

  5. A "Gam-jeom" shall be counted as minus-one (-1) point.

  6. Prohibited acts:" Kyong-go" penalty

    1. Touching acts
      1. Grabbing the opponent
      2. Holding the opponent
      3. Pushing the opponent
      4. Touching the opponent with the trunk

    2. Negative acts
      1. Intentionally crossing the Alert Line
      2. Evading by turning the back to the opponent
      3. Intentionally falling down
      4. Pretending injury

    3. Attacking acts
      1. Butting or attacking with the knee
      2. Intentionally attacking the groin
      3. Intentionally stamping or kicking any part of the leg or foot
      4. Hitting the opponent’s face with hands or fist

    4. Undesirable acts
      1. Gesturing to indicate scoring or deduction on the part of the contestant or the coach
      2. Uttering undesirable remarks or any misconduct on the part of the contestant or the coach
      3. Leaving the designated mark on the part of the coach during match

  7. Prohibited acts: Game-jeom penalty

    1. Touching acts
      1. Throwing the opponent
      2. Intentionally throwing down the opponent by grappling the opponent’s attacking foot in the air with the arm

    2. Negative acts
      1. Crossing the Boundary Line
      2. Intentionally interfering with the progress of the match

    3. Attacking acts
      1. Attacking the fallen opponent
      2. Intentionally attacking the back and the back of the head
      3. Attacking the opponent’s face severely with hands

    4. Undesirable acts
      Violent or extreme remarks or behaviors on the part of the contestant or the coach

  8. When a contestant refuses to comply with the Competition Rules or the referee’s order intentionally, the referee may declare the contestant loser by penalty.

  9. When the contestant receives minus three (-3) points, the referee shall declare him/her loser by penalties.

  10. "Kyong-go" and " Gam-jeom" shall be counted in the total score of the three rounds.

Article 15. Decision of Superiority

  1. In the case of a tie score by deduction of points, the winner shall be the contestant awarded any point or more points through the three rounds.

  2. In the case of a tie score other than case 1. above, (where both contestants received the same number of points and/or deductions) the winner shall be decided by the referee based on superiority throughout all three rounds.

  3. Decision of superiority shall be based on the initiative shown during the contest.

Article 16. Decisions

  1. Win by K.O.

  2. Win by Referee Stop Contest (RSC)

  3. Win by score or superiority

  4. Win by withdrawal

  5. Win by disqualification

  6. Win by referee’s punitive declaration

Article 17. Knock Down

  1. When any part of the body other than the sole of the foot touches the floor due to the force of the opponent’s delivered technique.

  2. When a contestant is staggered showing no intention or ability to pursue the match.

  3. When the referee judges that the contest cannot continue as the result of any power technique having been delivered.

Article 18. Procedure in the Event of a Knock Down

  1. When a contestant is knocked down as the result of the opponent's legitimate attack, the referee shall take the following measures:

    1. The referee shall keep the attacker away from downed contestant by declaration of "Kalyeo" (break).

    2. The referee shall count aloud from "Hanah" (one) up to "Yeol" (ten) at one second interval towards the downed contestant, making hand signals indicating the passage of time.

    3. In case the downed contestant stands up during the referee’s count and desires to continue the fight, the referee shall continue the count up to " Yeodul" (eight) for recovery of the downed contestant. The referee shall then determine if the contestant is recovered and, if so, continue the contest by declaration of "Kyesok" (continue).

    4. When a contestant who has been knocked down cannot demonstrate the will to resume the contest by the count of " Yeodul" , the referee shall announce the other contestant winner by K.O.

    5. The count shall be continued even after the end of the round or the expiration of the match time.

    6. In case both of the contestants are knocked down, the referee shall continue counting as long as one of the contestants has not sufficiently recovered.

    7. When both of the contestants fail to recover by the count of "Yeol", the winner shall be decided upon the match score before the occurrence of knock down.

    8. When it is judged by the referee that a contestant is unable to continue, the referee may decide the winner either without counting or during the counting.

  2. Procedures to be followed after the contest

    Any contestant suffering a knock-out as the result of a blow to the head, will not be allowed to compete for the next 30 days.

    Before entering a new contest after 30 days, the contestant must be examined by a medical doctor designated by the National Taekwondo Association, who must certify that the contestant is recovered and able to compete.

Article 19. Procedures for Suspending the Match

When a contestant is to be stopped due to the injury of one or both of contestants, the referee shall take the following measures:

  1. The referee shall suspend the contest by declaration of "Kalyeo" and order the Recorder to suspend the time keeping by announcing "Kyeshi" (suspend).

  2. The referee shall allow the contestant to receive first aid within one minute.

  3. The contestant who does not demonstrate the will to continue the contest after one minute, even in the case of a slight injury, shall be declared loser by the referee.

  4. In case resumption of the contest is impossible after one minute the contestant causing the injury by a prohibited act to be penalized by "Gam-jeom" shall be declared loser.

  5. In case both of the contestants are knocked down and are unable to continue the contest after one minute, the winner shall be decided upon points scored before the injuries occurred.

  6. When it is judged that a contestant’s health is at risk due to losing consciousness of falling in an apparently dangerous condition, the referee shall suspend the contest immediately and order first aid to be administered. The referee shall declare as loser, the contestant causing the injury if it is deemed to have resulted from a prohibited attack to be penalized by "Gam-jeom", or in the case the attack was not deemed to be penalized by Gam-jeom, shall decide the winner on the basis of the score of the match before suspension of the time.

Article 20. Referees and Judges

  1. Qualifications

    Holders of International Referee Certificate registered by the WTF.

  2. Duties

    1. Referee
      1. The referee shall have control over the match.
      2. The referee shall declare "Shijak", "Keuman", "Kalyeo", "Kyesok" and "Kyeshi", winner and loser, deduction of points, warnings and retiring. All the referee' declarations shall be made when the results are confirmed.
      3. The referee shall have the right to make decisions independently in accordance with the prescribed rules.
      4. The referee shall not award points.
      5. In case of a tie or scoreless match, the decision of superiority shall be made by the referee after the end of three rounds.

    2. Judges
      1. The judges shall mark the valid points immediately.
      2. The judges shall state their opinions forthrightly when requested by the referee.

  3. Responsibility for Judgement

    Decisions made by the referees and judges shall be conclusive and they shall be responsible to the Board of Arbitration for those decisions.

  4. Uniform of the Referees and Judges

    1. The referees and judges shall wear the uniform designated by the WTF.

    2. The referees and judges shall not carry or take any materials to the Arena which might interfere with the contest.

Article 21. Recorder

The recorder shall time the contest and periods of time-out, suspension, and also shall record and publicize the awarded points, and /or deduction of points.

Article 22. Assignment of Officials

  1. Composition of Refereeing Officials

    1. In the use of non-electronic trunk protector:

      The officials are composed of one referee and three judges.

    2. In the use of electronic trunk protector:

      The officials are composed of one referee and two judges.


  2. Assignment of Refereeing Officials

    1. The assignment of the referees and judges shall be made after the contest schedule is fixed.

    2. Referees and judges with the same nationality as that of either contestant shall not be assigned to such a contest. However, an exception shall be made for the judges when the number of refereeing officials is insufficient as the case may be.

Article 23. Other matters not specified in the Rules

In the case that any matters not specified in the Rules occur, they shall be dealt with as follows:

  1. Matters related to the competition shall be decided through consensus by the refereeing officials of the pertinent contest.

  2. Matters which are not related to a specific contest, shall be decided by the Executive Council or its proxy.

  3. The organizing committee shall prepare for a video tape recorder at each court for recording and preservation of the match process.

Article 24. Arbitration

  1. Composition of the Board of Arbitration

    1. Qualifications: Member of Executive Council of the WTF or person of sufficient Taekwondo experience recommended by the WTF President or Secretary General.

    2. Composition: One chairman and less than six members

    3. Procedure of appointment: The chairman and members of the Board of Arbitration will be appointed by the WTF President on the recommendation of the WTF Secretary General.

  2. Responsibility: The Board of Arbitration shall make corrections of misjudgments according to their decision regarding protests and take disciplinary action against the officials committing the misjudgment or any illegal behavior and the results of which shall be sent to the Secretariat of the WTF.

  3. Procedure of Protest

    1. In case there is an objection to a judgement, a delegate must submit an application for re-evaluation of decision (protest application) together with the prescribed fee to the Board of Arbitration within 10 minutes after the pertinent contest.

    2. Deliberation of re-evaluation shall be carried out excluding those members with the same nationality as that of either contestant concerned, and resolution on deliberation shall be made by majority.

    3. The members of the Board of Arbitration may summon the refereeing officials for confirmation of events.

    4. The resolution made by the Board of Arbitration will be final and no further means of appeal will be applied.

13.0 Brief History of Korea

The ancient history of the Korean peninsula can be traced to the Neolithic
Age, when Turkic-Manchurian-Mongol peoples migrated into the region from
China. The first agriculturally based settlements appeared around 6000
B.C.E. Some of the larger communities of this era were established along
the Han-gang River near modern-day Seoul, others near Pyongyang and Pusan.
According to ancient lore, Korea's earliest civilization, known as Choson,
was founded in 2333 B.C.E. by Tan-gun.

In the 17th century, Korea became a vassal state of China and was cut off
from outside contact until the Sino-Japanese war of 1894-95. Following
Japan's victory, Korea was granted independence. By 1910 Korea had been
annexed by Japan, which developed the country but never won over the
Korean nationalists who continued to agitate for independence.

After Japan's surrender at the conclusion of World War II, the Korean
peninsula was partitioned into two occupation zones, divided at the 38th
parallel. The U.S.S.R. controlled the north, with the U.S. taking charge
of the south. In 1948, the division was made permanent with the
establishment of the separate regimes of North and South Korea. The
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) was established on
May 1, 1948, with Kim Il Sung as president.

Hoping to unify the Koreas under a single Communist government, the
North launched a surprise invasion of South Korea on June 25, 1950. In
the following days, the U.N. Security Council condemned the attack and
demanded an immediate withdrawal.

President Harry S. Truman ordered U.S. air and naval units into action to
enforce the U.N. order. The British government followed suit, and soon a
U.N. multinational command was set up to aid the South Koreans.

The North Korean invaders swiftly seized Seoul and surrounded the allied
forces in the peninsula's southeast corner near Pusan. In a desperate bid
to reverse the military situation, U.N. Commander Gen. Douglas MacArthur
ordered an amphibious landing at Inchon on Sept. 15 and routed the North
Korean army. MacArthur's forces pushed north across the 38th parallel,
approaching the Yalu River.

Prompted by this successful counter-offensive, Communist China entered the
war, forcing the U.N. troops into a headlong retreat. Seoul was lost again,
then regained; ultimately the war stabilized near the 38th parallel but
dragged on for two years while negotiations took place. An armistice was
agreed to on July 27, 1953.

By early 1994 tensions had mounted over international inspection of North
Korea's nuclear sites. Kim Il Sung's death on July 8, 1994 introduced a
period of uncertainty, as his son, Kim Jong-Il assumed the leadership
mantle. Negotiations over the country's suspected atomic weapons dragged
on, but an agreement was reached in June 1995 which included a provision
for providing the North with a South Korean nuclear reactor.

The nuclear crises that characterized the mid-1990s were overshadowed when
famine struck the nation's 24 million inhabitants. Two years of floods were
followed by severe droughts in 1997 and 1998, causing devastating crop
failures. Although international relief programs saved many people, the
situation was still considered serious in 1998, with aid agencies warning
that North Korea's nationalized food distribution program had virtually
shut down, forcing many people to rely on bark and wild plants to sustain
themselves. The severity of the famine continued in 1999. Because of lack
of fuel and machinery parts, and weather conditions that have encouraged
parasites, only 10% of North Korea's rice fields have been worked. Despite
the staggering food crisis, hermetic North Korea remains one of the world's
few remaining hard-line communist regimes.

In Sept. 1998 North Korea launched a test missile over Japan, claiming it
was simply a scientific satellite. This launch alarmed Japan and much of the
rest of the world about North Korea's intentions regarding reentry into the
nuclear arms race. In 1999, North Korea agreed to allow the United States
to conduct ongoing inspections of a suspected nuclear development site,
Kumchangri, which North Korea admits has been devised for "a sensitive
military purpose." In exchange, the U.S. would increase food aid and
initiate a program for bringing potato production to the country.

14.0 Korean Martial Arts Organizations

African Taekwondo Union (WTF)
PO Box 61002
Nairobi, Kenya
American Hapkido Association
157 Cambridge Street
Feeding Hills, Massachusetts 01030

American Taekwondo Association
6210 Baseline Road
Little Rock, Arkansas=A072209
Asian Taekwondo Union (WTF)
c/o Kyungwon University
San 65 Bokjung-dong, Sujung-gu
Sungnam City
Kyonggi-do 461-701
American Tang Soo Do Association
170 Pleasant Street
Malden, Massachusetts  02148
FAX: 781-324-9136
British Taekwondo Control Board (WTF)
11 Hassocks Hedge
Banbury Lane
Northampton, United Kingdom NN4-9QA
British United Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF)
58 Wiltshire Lane
Eastcote, Pinner
Middleessex, United Kingdom HA5-2LU
Canadian International Taekwon-Do Federation
4265 Papineau Ave.
Montreal, Quebec Canada
Confederacao Brasileira de Taekwondo (WTF)
Rua Voluntarios da Patria
Cep. 22.270-010-Botafogo
Rio de Janeiro
Deutsche Taekwondo Union (WTF)
Luisenstr. 3
90762 Furth
FAX: 49-911-9748889
European Han Mu Do Association
Udenseweg 8
5405 PA Uden
The Netherlands
FAX: 31-413-330214
European Sin Moo Hapkido Association
Badenerstr. 156 b
800 Zurich, Switzerland
0041-1-242-97 65
European Taekwondo Union (WTF)
PO Box 37
7570 AA Oldenzaal
The Netherlands
Federation Francaise de Taekwondo et Disciplines Associees (WTF)
Rue d'Arsonval
69330 Meyzieu
Federacion Chilena de Taekwondo (WTF)
Vicuna Mackenna 40 Oficina 12
Santiago, Chile
Federacion Mexicana de Taekwondo, Ltd (WTF)
Calle Incas #12 Altos 29
Entre Peru Y Hondurassalena Mixhuca
Col. Centro
C.P. 06010
Hong Kong Taekwondo Association (WTF)
Room 1014, Sports House
1 Stadium Path
So Kon Po, Causeway Bay
Hong Kong, China
India Taekwondo Federation of India (WTF)
RZ-85, Bhawanl Kunj
Pocket D-2, Vasant Kunj
New Delhi-110070
FAX: 91-11-689-9840
International Combat Hapkido Federation
22-C New Leicester Hwy. #173
Asheville, NC 28806
FAX: 828-683-1744
International Hapkido Alliance / Australian Hapkido Group
246 George Street
Liverpool NSW 2170
FAX: 612-9824-1767
International Hapkido Federation
522, KA Chang Ree
Whea Sa Myon
Yong In Kun
Kyong Ki Do
International Hapkido Federation (different from above)
3201 Santa Monica Blvd
Santa Monica, California 90404
International Hoshin-kido Hapkido Federation
359 A. Des Laurentides, Pont Viau, Laval,
Montreal, (Quebec), Canada
H7G 2T9
FAX: 450-662-2218
International Kongshin Hapkido Association
1017 S. Washington St.
Marion, IN 46953
International Modern Hapkido Federation
4460 Homestead Drive
Moscow, PA 18444
FAX: 570-842-3233
International Taekwondo Academy
World Taekwondo Headquarters
635, Yuksam-dong
Seoul 135-080, South Korea
FAX: 82-2-553-4728
International Taekwondo Council
3353 Bradshaw Road
Suite 201
Sacramento, California
International Taekwon-Do Federation
Drau Gasse 3
A-1210 Vienna, Austria
292-8475, 292-5509
International Tang Soo Do Federation
3955 Monroeville Blvd
Monroeville, Pennsylvania 15146
FAX: 412-373-5671
Irish Taekwondo Union (WTF)
14 Clontarf Road
Dublin 3
Rep. of Ireland
fax 353-1-8334453
Japan Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
Daisan-Nisshin Bldg, 12 floor
2-6-4, Shinjuku
Tokyo 160-0022, Japan
Jin Pal Hapkido Martial Arts Federation
1415 Albert St.
Regina, Saskatewan, Canada
Kong Shin Bup International
181 Gore Street
Sault Ste Marie, Ontario,  P6A 1M4
KoreAmerica TaeKwon-Do Union (KATU)
441 South Main St. #97
Manchester, Connecticut 06040
FAX: 860-649-1231
Korea Hapkido Association
Se-jong bldg. 202
7-1 Shin-Moon-ro
1-ka. Chong-ro-ku.
Seoul 110-061
FAX: 08-02-735-6662
Korea Hapkido Federation
18-11, Rung-dong
Seoul 143-180, Korea
FAX: 2-456-0953
Korea Judo Association
Room 504 Olympic Center
88 Oryoon-dong
Seoul 138-749, Korea
Korea Jungki Hapkido & Guhapdo Association
4th Floor Bek Kwang building
39-14 Samduk 1 Street Chung-Ku
Daegu City, Korea
Korea KiDo Association
122-2 Nam Yang Building 3000
Non Hyun Dong
Seoul, Korea
 or in Pusan,
3-35 Shin Chang Dong
Jung Gu
Pusan, Korea
Korea Kumdo Association
Room 505 Olympic Center
88 Oryoon-dong
Seoul 138-749, Korea
Korea Ssireum Organization
634-10 Yundang Builing, Sinsa-dong
Seoul 135-120, Korea
Korea Seoul City Mapooku Tae Kwon Do Association
Korean Soo Bahk Do Association
59-3 Nahnyoung-dong
Seoul 140-160, Korea

Korea Taekwondo Association
Room 607 Olympic Center
88 Oryoon-dong
Seoul 138-749, Korea
Korea Traditional Taekkyon Association
Chungju, Korea

Korea Tae Kwon Do Moo Duk Kwan Association
195-1 Mapo-dong
Seoul, Korea
FAX: 02-717-6565

Korea Taekkyon Association
#629-15 Shinsa-dong
Seoul, Korea
FAX: 82-2-542-3539

Korea TangSooDo MooDukKwan Society
475 W. Silver Star Road
Ocoee, Florida 34761

World Taekwondo Headquarters
635, Yuksam-dong
Seoul 135-080, Korea
FAX: 82-2-553-4728

National Korean Martial Arts Association
181 Gore Street
Sault Ste Marie, Ontario,  P6A 1M4

National Tang Soo Do Federation
PO Box 26265
Dayton, Ohio 45426

New Zealand Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
P.O.Box 14-540
Panmure, Auckland
New Zealand
FaX: 64-9-570-4311

Pan American Taekwondo Union (WTF)
440 S. Washington St.
Falls Church, Virginia 22046
FAX: 703-536-3223

Philippine Taekwondo Association (WTF)
Rizal Memorial Sports Complex
Vito Cruz Street, Malate
Metro-Manila, P.O.Box 2272
FAX: 63-2-817-7235

Polish Taekwon-do Association (ITF)
Nowowiejskiego 1/38
20-880 Lublin

Polish Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
Reymonta 35
60-791 Poznan
48-61-8663410 (both phone & fax)

Polish Taekwon-do Union (GTF)
P.O. Box 572
50-950 Wroclaw 2
FAX: 48-71-3101642

Russian Taekwondo Union (WTF)
8, Luzhnetskaya nab.
Moscow 119871, Russia

South African Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
P.O.Box 61418
Vaalpark, 9573
South Africa

Taekwondo Association of China (WTF)
9, Tiyuguan Road
Beijing 100763, People's Republic of China

Taekwondo Australia Inc.
24 Orion St. Vermont, 3133
Melbourne. VIC.

Taekwondo World Foundation
1313 Dolley Madison Blvd
Suite 104
McLean, Virginia 22101

United States Chung Do Kwan Association
PO Box 1474
Lakeland, Florida 33802

United States Hapkido Federation
P.O. Box 177
Bloomington, Indiana  47401

United States Korean Martial Arts Federation
291 Highway 51, E-10
Ridgeland, Mississippi 39157
FAX: 601-898-9687

United States National Taekwondo Federation
9956 W. Grand Ave.
Franklin Park, Illinois 60131
FAX: 847-451-1333

United States Soo Bahk Do Moo Duk Kwan Federation
20 Milburn Ave
Springfield, New Jersey

United States Taekwondo Association
220 East 86th Street
New York, New York 10028

United States Taekwon-do Federation  (ITF)
6801 W. 117th Ave
Broomfield, Colorado 80020

United States Taekwondo Union  (WTF)
1 Olympic Plaza
Suite 104C
Colorado Spgs, Colorado 80909

United States Yudo Association
PO Box 620533
Orlando, Florida  32862-0533
FAX: 407-855-2620

Universal Tae Kwon Do Brotherhood
2427 Buckingham Road
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104
313-971-7040  M-F 10AM to 5PM, Eastern timezone

Venezuelan Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
10455 SW 96 Street
Miami, FL 33176
FAX: 1-305-598-9543

World Dang Soo Do Union
SoungTan Moo Duk Kwan Dojang
Soungtan, Korea
FAX: 011-82-31-666-2480

World Hai Dong Gumdo Federation
Republic of Korea
Kyungki Do
Sangnam Si
Pundang Ku
Chongcha Dong 54-1

World Hapkido Federation
PO Box 15523
Los Angeles, California 90015

World Hapkido Games Federation
KaeBongDong 170-41
Seoul 152-090, Korea

World Han Mu Do Association
4816 Jamestown Ave.
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808

World Hwa Rang Do Association
8200 Firestone Blvs
Downey, California 90241

World KiDo Federation
36472 Fremont Blvd.
Fremont, California 94536
FAX: 510-744-0266

World Kuk Sool Association
3347 GM 1960 West
Houston, Texas 77068

World Kum Do Association
1207 East Locust Street
Davenport, IA 52803

World Moo Duk Kwan Tang Soo Do Federation
524 Wilbur St.
Brandon, Florida 33511

World Sin Moo Hapkido Association
1400 Willow Ave
Elkins, Pennsylvania 19027
FAX: 215-782-3068

World Song Moo Kwan Association
2913 Lyndale Avenue S
Minneapolis, MN 55408
FAX: 612-823-1433

World Tae Kwon Do Association
4th Floor
47 West 14th Street
New York, New York 10003

World Taekwondo Federation
 see Kukkiwon

World Tang Soo Do Association
709 Oregon Ave.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19148
FAX: 215-336-2121

World Tang Soo Do Union
see World Dang Soo Do Union

WTF Taekwondo Association of Canada (WTF)
1300 Carling Ave
Ottawa, Ontario
Canada K1Z-7L2

* 15.0 The people that made this FAQ possible

This FAQ is not a one person effort, but the combined effort
of many.  Many thanks to those below that made this FAQ possible.

Brad Appleton   bradapp@enteract.com
Anthony Boyd   tonyclare@netsgo.com
Dakin Burdick   burdickd@indiana.edu
Ross Deforrest   ssor@tenet.edu
Jay Fallik   fallik@acsu.buffalo.edu
Carsten Jorgensen   hwarang@usa.net
Steve Kincade   skincade@telapex.com
Pat Macken   mackenpc@cio.net
Barry Nauta   barrel@dds.nl
Randy Pals   pals@ipact.com
OEyvind Saeter   oes@pvv.ntnu.no
Lorelei Senna   KSWJKN@aol.com
Holcombe Thomas   hhthomas@netvigator.com
Glenn H. Uesugi   puunui@aloha.net
(sorry if I left anyone out)
Some answers given may reflect personal biases of the author and the
FAQ's contributors.  The answers contained herein pertain to discussions
on The_Dojang email distribution list and are by no means exhaustive.
Copyright 1997-2002: Ray Terry, Martial Arts Resource, California Taekwondo and Hapkido